Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Alessandro Scarlatti essays Alessandro Scarlatti was a composer during the Baroque Era. When compared with its music predecessors, Baroque music is said to be have more lavish textures, and more intense. This period of music introduced Operas, Oratorios, and Cantatas. It also brought along orchestral forms, though Operas became very popular. Operas were very popular because Italian intellectuals wanted to recapture the Greek Dramas, in which music played a major role. A distinguishing feature of the Baroque Era was the emphasis on the musics volume, texture, and pace. The previous era, (Late Renaissance) did not focus on these very much. Cannons and Fugues (strict forms of imitative polyphony) were also very popular during the Baroque Era. In this Era, composers were expected to prove their expertise whenever asked. To this, they were expected to improvise complex Fugues on a moments notice. Only the best were able to do this. Alessandro Scarlatti was born in Palermo on May 2nd 1660. Not much is known about his family, other than the fact that he had two sisters, and his parents were Sicilian, and most likely from Artistic families themselves. At the age of twelve, Alessandro and his two sisters were sent to Rome to live with relatives. There were rumors that Alessandro studied with Carissimi while there. Carissimi was an Italian composer who composed hundreds of motets and cantatas in addition to Masses, and other sacred music. When Alessandro was seventeen, he married, and not quite nine months later, their first of six children was born. At the age of eighteen, he composed his first opera, Gli Equivoci nel sembiante, which was a great success. Some may argue that this was actually his second opera. There are rumors that he composed an earlier opera, but it was never performed, and the title is unknown. Sometime between the time he was married, and his first composition, hi...
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Investigating effect of temperature on the activity of lipase Essays Investigating effect of temperature on the activity of lipase This practical gives you a chance to: investigate how lipase activity changes with temperature consider how indicators can help us to follow chemical reactions. Procedure SAFETY: Keep the phenolphthalein solution away from naked flames. Wear eye protection and quickly rinse any splashes of enzyme solution or sodium carbonate from the skin. Make sure you know what to do if a thermometer is broken. Investigation aLabel a test tube with the temperature you will be investigating. bAdd 5 drops of phenolphthalein to the test tube. cMeasure out 5 cm3 of milk using a measuring cylinder (or syringe) and add this to the test tube. dMeasure out 7 cm3 of sodium carbonate solution using another measuring cylinder (or syringe) and add this to the test tube. The solution should now be pink. ePlace a thermometer in the test tube. Take care as the equipment could topple over. fPlace the test tube in a water bath and leave until the contents reach the same temperature as the water bath. gRemove the thermometer from test tube and replace it with a glass rod. hUse the 2 cm3 syringe to measure out 1 cm3 of lipase from the beaker in the water bath for the temperature you are investigating. iAdd the lipase to the test tube and start the stopclock/ stopwatch. jStir the contents of the test tube until the solution loses its pink colour. kStop the clock/ watch and note the time in a suitable table of results. lPlot a graph of time taken for the reaction to occur against temperature. mYou can convert this to a rate of reaction graph by calculating 1 time for each of the temperatures. (If any tubes have not reacted in the time taken, this is a rate of zero.) QUESTIONS 1When fat breaks down, what is produced 2Use this information to explain why the phenolphthalein changes colour. 3What is the effect of temperature on the time taken for lipase to break down the fat in milk? 4Why does the temperature affect the action of lipase in this way? 5What is the difference between a time taken and a rate of reaction curve for this investigation? 6Why is it necessary to break down fat in the digestive system? 7Use other sources of information to find out about: bile salts and their effects on digestion of fats what happens to the fatty acids and glycerol once they have been absorbed from the digestive tract. ANSWERS 1When fat breaks down, fatty acids and glycerol are produced. 2The fatty acids lower the pH of the mixture which changes the colour of the phenolphthalein from pink to colourless. 3Increasing temperatures from 0 C to around 45 C will reduce the time taken for the lipase to break down the fat in milk. Over this temperature, the time taken will increase, or perhaps the lipase will not work at all. 4Temperature affects the action of lipase this way because increasing temperatures (up to around 40 C) increase the rate of reaction, by increasing the collision rate between the enzyme and substrate molecules (as in any chemical reaction). The highest rate of reaction is at the optimum temperature for the enzyme. The rate of reaction then reduces as temperature increases until, at some point, the reaction stops altogether. This is because at high temperatures (usually over 45 C), the protein structure of the enzyme is denatured by heat. The molecule loses its shape and the enzyme is de-activated. 5A time taken curve and a rate of reaction curve show similar patterns, but one is an upside-down version of the other. 6It is necessary to break down fat in the digestive system to make it easier to absorb through the membranes of the gut and also to make it soluble enough to transport in the blood. 7Bile salts emulsify fats, which means they make it easier to form an emulsion of tiny droplets of fat suspended in water. A fatty emulsion will not separate quickly. This increases the surface area of fat exposed to enzymes in solution and increases the rate of digestion. When fatty acids and glycerol have been absorbed from the digestive tract, they are transported through the lymphatic system and enter the bloodstream at the sub-clavian vein (underneath the collar bone).
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Hamlet - Essay Example HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s madness leads him to commit revenge for the death of the King who was his father. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s crafts a scheme to force his uncle to accept that he murdered the King. In Act I scene V of the play, HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost encourages him to murder the current King who is his uncle as revenge for poisoning his father (Shakespeare 35). As part of his aim to make his uncle confess to the crime, he feigns madness. His first characteristics of madness appear when he encounters Ophelia, a woman who he had made countless presentations of his affection. He acts insane towards her before the opening of the tale. He acts mad by grabbing her hands, caressing her face, and by staring at her closely as he exits the room. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s father Polonius attributes HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s madness as a result of his love for her. Through his madness, Hamlet alienates Ophelia by making it known that he never loved her at all. Hamlet further confuses her when he decides to sit next to her during the play within a play in Act III. Ophelia is unsure of his melancholy to ecstatic attitude change. Hamlet almost avenges his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death when he finds the king kneeling down in prayer. He contemplates upon this by questioning the morality of killing him when he is in prayer. In Act III scene IV, his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s ghost visits him again to remind him that he has not avenged his murder (Shakespeare 95). In Act V scene II, he ultimately kills the king before he dies too. HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s feigned madness leads to him becoming obsessed with revenge for his father. In the play, Ophelia is daughter to Polonius, and HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s love interest. She gets trapped between Polonius and HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s world as she gets confused as to whether to become obedient towards his father or fall in love with Hamlet. This confusion results to her tragic end. Ophelia as demanded by society at the time is obedient towards his father. He lives by his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s rules an d gets used by him as a catch to spy on Hamlet. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s obedience towards men also leaves her at the mercies of HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s constant abuse of her. Hamlet accuses Ophelia of being a breeder of sinners and if she were to marry she would turn her husband into a monster as she would cheat on him. The constant barrage of criticism directed towards her by Hamlet crushes her. She gets crashed when Hamlet declares that he never loved her (Shakespeare 30). As a young woman, Ophelia is under too much pressure from both her father and Hamlet. She eventually cracks and goes mad. She sings of a girl who gets tricked into losing her virginity for a false promise on marriage. Her madness leads her to commit suicide by drowning. Her mental breakdown is real and as a result of the patriarchal pressure and abuse he receives from his father and Hamlet. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s madness gets contributed by the overall state of confusion existent in the entire play. She gets confused as to whether t o surrender to Hamlet or her father. She gets caught in both worlds. It is this confusion that leads her to breakdown mentally. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s madness can also get attributed to the misogynistic and gender themes existent in the play. As demanded by society at the time, women were to be obedient to every move by their male counterparts in society. Ophelia gets forced to obey the men in her lives. It is this submission to both her father and Hamlet that contribute to her state of confusion and apparent mental breakdown. She complies with his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
What are the main areas of risk facing a medium-sized developing housing association explain what might influence its response to those risks and what a risk strategy might include - Essay Example Risk is often seen as possibility of an undesirable event. Under scenario analysis, risk is differentiated from threat. A threat is considered an event with very low probability but possessing serious harms. Analysts are often unable to allocate a probability to threat and for that there is no effective preventive measure is available. The only precautionary measure that can be taken to cope up with a threat is to reduce the set of definite risks before proceeding to an experiment, project, action or innovation. If any of the above-mentioned variables reduces to zero, then the overall approaches to risk will be zero. For instance, humans are extremely vulnerable to the threat that aliens might control their minds, which would have a severe effect. But since we have never seen aliens therefore, we can say that they might not pose such amount of threat so the overall risk reduces to almost zero. Every type of business possesses some level of risk. Many risk-averse people prefer not to do business, since it includes a large amount of risk i.e. a business might work, and a business might not work. So there are 50/50 chances that one will be successful in respective business. Every business has certain risks, some of which are foreseeable while others cannot be predicted and are therefore uncontrollable risks. Risk is an important component of small and medium sized business as well. Some common types of losses in SMEs include fire, theft, flood, injury, legal liability, disability, etc. Undoubtedly, every business entity requires vigorous risk assessment and management system but Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs) need to put even more attention to risk management since they may not have means and resources to control and manage risks due to several limitations and their varying size. However, this is not the case in large multinational corporations because organizations take special
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Introduction and conclusion - Essay Example The school is an important place in the life of every student. It is their second home and significant source of knowledge and venue for mastering skills. In this regard, the environment of the school must encourage students to have the zeal for education so as to raise their academic performance. Secondarily, schools are where students spend most of their time each day. Therefore, the facilities of schools should offer a variety of ways to appeal to the learners and leave among them a good impression. The classroom is an important environment where students are exposed to aspects of different fields ranging from basic education to professionalism. Recent research has proven the relationship between performance and classroom facilities. Normally, classroom facilities can either engage or deter students from learning, thus affecting student attendance and academic performance. Tailoring classroom facilities to the developmental needs of students can improve the level of student performance in the classroom. Both the physical and social aspects of classrooms should be considered in order to impact positively on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ academic performance and social adjustment (Syakima et al., 2011). The basic requirements of a classroom are safety and cleanliness to foster good health and safety. Classrooms should be free from falling objects, well-lighted and well-ventilated. In a report by the U.S. Accounting Office (cited in Schneider, 2002), it was noted that 15,000 schools suffered from poor IAQ, thus affecting health of more than eight million children. The statistics show that a lot of efforts are yet to be done to ensure the safety of school classrooms. However, ventilation and sanitation are only basic requirements in every classroom. The future classroom should have more than the basics. It should respond to the needs of future students. To do so, schools should carefully determine and respond to the needs of students. Some of these
Friday, November 15, 2019
Homosexuality In Dead Dreams Of Monochrome Men In this essay I am going to look at the work Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men (Dead Dreams) by Lloyd Newson, performed by the Physical Theatre Company DV8. I will focus on the way homosexuality is represented within the piece. I will then look at the work of the playwright Oscar Wilde (1854 -1900) and the painter Francis Bacon (1909 -1992) in order to examine how homosexuality was represented within their art and make comparisons with Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men. I will try to show how the representation of homosexuality within art at different times reflects the prevailing attitudes towards homosexuality of the time. I will examine how each artist used their creativity to put forward ideas and messages about their personal experience of homosexuality, and the extent to which this was influenced by the society in which they lived. Although these artists lived in different eras I believe they shared a similar attitude to the pain, suffering and frustration that homosexuals were forced to feel when existing within a society which regarded their natural sexual orientation with prejudice and lack of understanding. Homosexuality was a criminal offence in the UK until 1967. Before this date homosexuals could be imprisoned gay males had to risk various punishments from society for their behaviour which was not condoned by the establishment. Because of this many homosexuals experienced conflict: either to not follow their natural sexual desires and live a lie, of follow them and risk exposure as a criminal and perhaps even prison. This forced homosexuals into a world of guilt and secrecy which is still resounding within homosexual culture today. Even though attitudes towards homosexuality can be said to me more liberal today, for many people homosexuals are still strongly associated with unnatural acts and perversion not just on an individual basis but also be institutions such as the Catholic Church. 2 Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men In 1986, Lloyd Newson formed the Physical Theatre Company DV8 and he is the main choreographer of DV8s work. Newson is renowned for exploring and attacking the forbidden in an attempt to challenge societys views of various issues and, in particular, homosexuality. Newson addresses the distance created by mainstream or straight society which pushes homosexuals to the fringes. (Hutera, 83, 2008) Newson has placed his sexualized politics into the body of his works. (Reynolds, 2009, online) Interestingly, before Newson made his way into the art world with DV8, he trained as a therapist. Perhaps in his therapeutic work he was able to identify with the struggles of the other minorities who experienced prejudice that he would have encountered: people who experienced great personal problems or behavioural addiction problems which may have made them feel like outsiders. Newson is obviously a highly political person who does not shy away from pushing the boundaries to achieve his artistic and political objectives. DV8 Physical Theatres work is about taking risks, aesthetically and physically, about breaking down the barriers between dance, theatre and personal politics and, above all, communicating ideas and feelings clearly and unpretentiously. It is determined to be radical yet accessible, and to take its work to as wide an audience as possible. (DV8, 2010, online) Originally premiered as a stage piece on 5th October 1988, Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men was the first stage piece by DV8 to be reworked and transformed for film (in 1990). My impressions of the piece are based on this film, directed by David Hinton, rather than the stage performance. Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men is divided into ten different pieces, involving a cast of four male dancers, (including Lloyd Newson himself), conveying the alienation of homosexual males and the deionisation of homosexual thirsts. (Hutera, 83, 2008) The work is said to be inspired by the serial killer Dennis Nielsen, a man sentenced to life imprisonment in 1983 after murdering fifteen male homosexuals. Newsons decision to use Dennis Nielsen within this piece could be regarded as surprising as Nielsen could be seen to represent the seediest, most violent and sadistic aspects of homosexuality rather than its more acceptable face. For me this shows Newsons honesty in not backing away from difficult issues. However while violence is always imminent in this work, the choreographer and director also focus on the unexpected tenderness of four men who are too desperate to control their needs to suppress their fear, (Ney, 2001, online) Through the choices made in terms of movement, camera, music and set in Dead Dreams, the fear suggested is of the sexual desire between the four dancers, who are battling with themselves and those around them. Newson is suggesting that homosexuals feel a need to try and suppress their desire, because of the harsh world they live in. Although homosexuality is treated far more openly within U.K. society than ever before, it is still tinged with danger and fear, perhaps echoing its past and the impact that prohibition and prejudice still have on homosexual culture. Newson made known that the production loved to assault middle England prejudices and use shock as a major tactic. (Brown, 2003, online) Newson was one of the first artists, not just in dance but across all art, to not feel the need to try and hide or tone down the homosexuality in his work. Newson was not afraid to use real male bodies, show you the real skin on skin contact and let you know that homosexuality is what you were being witness to. The use of camera in Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men brings the audience face to face with the gay relationships between dancers. Throughout the piece the camera zooms in on close-ups of skin to skin contact. For example a duet in the second piece blind shows us a moment where two dancers are stood one in front of the other. The dancer behind reaches around the dancers body in front and lifts his t-shirt (a popular item of clothing among gays) to cover his head. Using his hands he then slowly and lightly explores the surface of his skin around his abdominal and pectoral area. At the culmination of this, the camera slowly zooms onto the dancers stomach and all we can see is this hand to stomach contact. The use of close up by the camera gives us no choice but to be confronted with this idea of intimacy between the dancers, emphasising the importance of this imagery to the piece, and the overall work. Suddenly the hand slaps the stomach and the piece finishes. The slap communicates to me a feeling of forbidden, that the touching between the two is wrong. Whilst we are shown the close up camera shot of the hand to stomach contact, there are short snaps of another dancer who is positioned to the side of the duet. This dancer is crouched tensely over with this body, with his mouth pushed wide open, every limb, and finger to neck is stiff and contracted. The dancer appears anguished and frustrated. The fact that we are unable to hear any scream which you feel he is desperately trying to project, communicates that he may be a symbolic reference to the silent frustration felt by many homosexuals who feel they need to live in denial of their sexuality. There are many moments in Dead Dreams that contrast what we see on the outside of the dancers with what they are feeling on the inside. Newson has created moments which make us think there is more to the dancers than what is being portrayed on the surface, that an act is being put on. For example, in piece four I just want to be with you we have the only moment in the whole work where a dancer speaks. A man (perhaps representing Nielsen) is sat smoking, looking at us through the camera and speaking as though he were trying to chat us up in a bar. The smoke illusion and the steadiness of his voice communicate an impression of calmness. However, about five metres in the distance behind this man we see another male figure, squashed between two walls. As the dancer speaks the male behind moves in a fidgety manor within his small space, as if trying to find a position that is comfortable. As the conversation builds and the sentences become longer and more personal, the dancers movements becomes bigger and more frantic, suggesting that perhaps the dancers are actually different sides of the same person. This scene appears to be metaphoric. Newson may be trying to say that however comfortable gay men appear to be on the outside, there is still a lack of confidence inside. DV8 aims to connect the world outside with the world inside or, if you like, the personal with the political. Even though their focus is on the body in action, they use whatever means they need to achieve that connection dance, acting, circus, film, whatever. The message matters more than the medium. (2008, Roy, online) Silence is used very effectively throughout Dead Dreams. The use of silence at moments enables the audience to hear the breathing of the dancers. In Piece Four the dancers breathing speeds up as another dancer walks towards him, getting closer and closer. The breathing increases even more as that dancer then makes body contact with him, hand to his neck. By the intensity of the breathing we can sense a strong feeling of the nervousness and perhaps lack of trust he feels about the situation. This idea of trust between two dancers is bought up again later in the work, in a more symbolic and obvious way. Piece six called Falling Down involves a moment when one dancer is dropping himself from a ladder onto another dancer who is supposed to catch and break his fall. The dancer falls testing their trust, three times. First from a height of about two metres, the next as high as four metres, but then on the third drop, he is willing to fall from a height of about ten feet. The dancer beneath walks away, but the dancer drops himself anyway, perhaps suggesting that even those who you have grown used to trusting always have the capacity to let you down again echoing the Nielsen story as he first befriended his victims before killing them. Filmed in starkly lit, anguish- and muscle-enhancing black and white, Dead Dreams looks like a living George Platt Lynes photograph set in a fevered, prison like bar world, pulsating with wordless sexual narratives, twitchy erotic appetites and well-shorn, hunky men. (From Video Cover). Is this prison supposed to represent another world, homosexuality from which there is no escape? In Piece Five, Drum and Dance for the first time we see the outside of the prison. A protected barred window, through which a bright light shines through (as if suggesting a happier place) into the dark and eerie box in which the four males seem trapped. A desire to reach for this light is suggested as the three dancers each try individually to get out of the window, a teasing four metres above their heads. They soon think of using each other to help reach up to the window, and start co-operating to the point of climbing up one anothers backs to standing on shoulders. (An example of the physical skill demand in DV8s movement material). Perhaps Newson is suggesting that only if homosexuals work together can they fight prejudice and negativity? How there needs to be a strong sense of unity amongst homosexuals, based on their shared experiences of alienation and rejection. In the third piece The Pedestal Newson again seems to address the issue of denial. A male dancer is sitting on the shoulder of another male dancer. The dancer carrying the other walks non stop in a circle for about three minutes. Obviously the weight of carrying a whole males body, particularly on just one shoulder is very demanding, and so he struggles to walk around upright and soon becomes pushed to a crouch. The way the dancer fights for as long as he possibly can, could be taken to suggest the idea of a homosexual in denial. How the weight of going against what is such a natural part of you can been very hard, and will eventually crush (kill?) you. In an interview with the telegraph, Newson speaks about his beliefs and his position as a homosexual artist. He explains, I am a politician already. Battling with the politics of dance, and the politics of life. If I can carry on those battles with a loudspeaker- which you can do when you have company that gives public performances then I will. DV8 is my loudspeakerÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ The direct line between what we felt and what we showed we felt angry, we showed anger immediately. And it got to a point when we burned ourselves out. (Brown, 2003, online) Dead Dreams is a powerful work that draws you into the world of the homosexual and confronts you with your own prejudices. It has an integrity based on what one feels to be the gritty truth about the negative attitudes and insecurities regarding homosexuality which Newson obviously still feel permeate U.K. society today and the dangers that many homosexuals still face because of this. 3 Oscar Wilde Oscar Wilde was a successful poet and playwright who produced most of his work in the late 19th century. The Victorian society in which Wilde lived stressed the need for family values and a faithful religious way of life. Although everyone knew that homosexuality existed most pretended to not know anything about it and homosexuals were forced to live secret lives. Homosexuals came mainly from the upper and middle classes and had both the financial and social life to enable them to engage in homosexual activities. (Hilliard, 1982, online) Many were married and lived double lives and were flamboyantly dressed. During the 1880s and 90s societies attitudes towards homosexuality changed significantly. What before was thought of as sinful behaviour, views of homosexuality altered into believing it was nothing but a sickness. (Hilliard, 1982, online) However the LabouchÃ ¨re Amendment of the Criminal Law Act of 1885 criminalised all homosexual acts by males in private and public, and this legislation eventually led to Oscar Wilde being prosecuted. (Hilliard, 1982, online) Oscar Wilde was one of the many homosexuals who lived a double life. Wilde appeared to adhere to Victorian values by marrying and having two sons, prior to acknowledging that he was in fact a homosexual. However the pressures of living a lie eventually caught up with Wilde and when he left his wife he returned to Oxford and the company of his friends from the upper classes and began drinking heavily and living a more openly homosexual lifestyle, including a very public affair with a member of the British aristocracy (Lord Alfred Douglas). Shortly after he was arrested, tried and sentenced to two years had labour for his homosexuality. (Moonstruck, online) Through his work Wilde was able to secretly convey his views, by creating a somewhat coded language which laid as a discreet undertone to his work. When you were aware of the secret messages Wilde had put into his work (which had reference to homosexuality), messages that lay deeper beneath the rich colour and beauty, the public would be witness to a whole different play. (Coren, 94, 1997) Homosexual undertones in Wildes writings, particularly in his novel, were used against him and helped send him to jail. His play The Importance of Being Earnest Wilde directly addresses the theme of dual identities. The plays two main characters are seen to be engaged in bunburying, which in the play is seen to refer to having one identity in London and another in the country. This was shown in the play as allowing them to escape Victorian social mores. This was taken by many to be a metaphor for the double life many homosexuals were living at the time. (SOURCE: MENDELSHON, DANIEL; THE TWO OSCAR WILDES, NEW YORK REVIEW OF BOOKS, VOLUME 49, NUMBER 15 ÃâÃ · 10 OCTOBER 2002). Some commentators have suggested that bunburying was a slang terms for homosexual sex and that earnest was often used as a code word for homosexual as in is he earnest? During his trials, Wildes own homosexual undertones in his writings, particularly in his I Wilde was also explicit in his only novel, Dorian Gray where the male writer says of his first meeting with the lead character: for the first time. I knew that I had come face to face with someone whose mere personality was so fascinating that, if I allowed it to do so, it would absorb my whole nature, my whole soul, my very art itself. This description of one man falling in love with another was felt to be shocking at the time of the books publication. Oscar Wilde was forced to hide his homosexuality behind layers of inference and disguise. He was terrified of revealing his homosexuality because he knew that he would be alienated and ostracised from the society. (Rader, online) Oscar Wilde was a prime example of how the negative attitudes towards homosexuality lead to secrecy and denial and that this can ultimately prove to be personally disastrous for the individual concerned. 4 Francis Bacon Born in Ireland in 1910, living until 1992, Francis Bacon was voted the most important living artist in the world. His influence and popularity amongst society cannot be denied as during the early twentieth century he existed as the highest selling living painter. Bacon was a painter of figures, (mainly portraits studies), often using an easel and canvas to create a roughly textured surface of oil paints. Working only from photographs, Bacon would transfer the figure he sees in this stimulus, to a figure painted on canvas. Francis Bacon was an artist who never tried to flatter the sitters he painted, but rather reflected his take on human existence. (Peppiatt 233, 2009), (Fifield, online) There is a clear theme that runs through all of Bacons works, the theme of distortion, the breaking up of the human body. For example in Bacons Portrait of Michel Leiris (1976) and Francis Bacon Self Portrait (1978). Francis Bacons homosexuality was no secret in his career. The death of Bacon at the age of 82 in 1992 stands as a significant moment, a turning point, in our understanding not only of the concept of queer, but of how artists felt able to operate if they were to be both true to themselves yet find a measure of acceptance in a society by and large hostile to homosexual expression. (1996, Cooper, online) Francis Bacon considered himself to be a queer homosexual and did not want to be known as a gay, as he did not like the word. In the old fashioned sense when queer was a term of abuse, a recognition and disapproval by society of divergent sexual tastes. There is that suggests Bacon was moved by the ideas and theories of gay liberation, but rather that the movement brought an unwelcome intrusion in what he regarded as his private life. At the time of the Stonewall riots in 1969, he was nearly 60 and his lifestyle was resolutely pre-liberationist in style and attitude. To change this would have involved great effort on his part. Going public, would not have seemed the thing to do at a time when his international reputation was well established. (1996, Cooper, online) It is obvious that Francis Bacon addresses homosexuality in his work, with paintings such as Study for Nude (1951) which involves male naked bodies intimately entwined, but he never spoke directly about it, and in particular would never speak of his personal relations that he wanted to remain completely private in attempt to not influence or detract from him being seen as an artist. The label gay was seen by many like Bacon, as a term just as abusive as Nigger. There were many liberations around during the later part of his life and represented a shift in homosexual lifestyle and its public persona. Bacon did not want to change his image and face the consequences of this from the public towards his work. Bacon produced most of his best work in the period after the Second World War, with his breakthrough piece Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion being painted in 1944. The immediate post war period was when society was very much about returning to family life and this can be seen through British and American films of the time. At this time it was very risky to divulge your homosexuality to others not only because it was illegal but also because it was not accepted. This would have led to feelings of isolation for many homosexuals. Even though society was becoming more tolerant of homosexuality, there was still great reluctance by homosexuals to trust others and discuss their sexuality, even with their families. At that time, men in this situation often referred to their doctors for help, and this occasionally led to medication or even psychiatric referrals to change their behaviour. Bacons subject matter was often autobiographical, reflecting the intimate and often anguished relationships he experienced. Despite Bacons use of distortion in his works, it is clear to see that the great predominant sex of his figures were male, and naked. When these naked figures in his works are involved in very close bodily contact, with entwined limbs where they are almost painted as one body, it is hard to not see Bacons work as greatly personal and specifically relatable to his sexuality. Yet by the late sixties Bacon had completed some of his queerest paintings. The relatively straightforward image Study from the Human Body (1949), of a naked man behind a transparent curtain is sensuous and enticing, offering a glimpse of some quiet, personal moment. An interesting choice that Bacon makes when displaying his final art pieces, is he demands that a glass cover be placed on top of his work, and with all aspects of art, everything is done for a reason. Is Bacons aim to create a reflection of the onlooker into the paintings too? Are we meant to look at ourselves and think of how we see ourselves in the painting? Bacon was probably the greatest British painter of the 20th century, and although he did not like to talk about his homosexuality directly, there is no doubt that his work brought homosexuality into the daylight and it was because of artists such as Bacon and others that the Sexual Offences Act 1967 Act which decriminalised homosexuality was passed. 5 Comparisons and Contrasts Dead Dreams of Monochrome men is shot in black and white, with dim lighting, creating a set of eeriness and little distraction. Francis Bacons works have the same effect, from his use of mainly black and white and other deep shades in his work, for example Three Studies for Figures at the base of a Crucifixion (1944). Bacons figurative and portrait paintings lack strong backgrounds, and thereby bring the main focus of his works, the figures, through as the strongest and most powerful detail. For instance in Bacons famous Self-Portrait (1971) he uses just a plain black painted background. In effect the mixture of blue, red and white tones that he has used to create the face, really emphasise and draw you in to these unusual skin colours. Similarly to pieces in Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men, as an audience we cannot help but be put in the position of being face to face with the shockingly suggestive gay relations. These artists are not afraid to use the naked body in their work, and feel no need to try to cover up or tone down the intensity of their work in doing so, just because of the shocked, some maybe disgusted, reaction we may have. Although Bacon uses the naked body, through vague outlines of the figures, the use of distance and blending, the naked figures in his works are created in a way that they do not hit you as much as Newsons figures. For example in Two figures (1953), which involves two male figures lying on a bed embraced, Bacon has used vertical brushstrokes that blend the black background in with the figures heads and body. You can be pretty sure that these two figures are male, however by Bacons technique here there is a possibility that he could argue that they are not, and that it is just your interpretation. I wonder does Bacon want the society to see homosexuals firstly as human being and their sexuality second. Whereas Newson aims for society to understand that human beings cannot be separated by their sexuality? In Dead Dreams, Newsons choice of props have been used effectively in terms of representing or having symbolic meaning by being put into a very plain and simple background. The same effect exists in some of Bacons pieces. Because of his plain backgrounds which exist as a running style through his paintings, when he involves an object it stands out as significant, and it can only be being used for a good reason. In Bacons Study for Crouching Nude, an outline of what appears to be a glass-like box which stands around the figure is painted. Is this glass meant to create an enclosed space the figure is stuck in? Meant to separate us from the figure? Matched by how the figure is hunched over in front of us and positioned in a crouch, the figure almost become animalistic, monkey-like. DV8 use the same idea of an enclosed setting around their male dancers a prison which they try to escape from. It could be said that the DV8 figures push the boundaries of humanity by such challenging and original movement. Are Newson and Bacon suggesting that sex is, at its most basic level, an animal act? Maybe they believe gays that suppress their feelings about their sexuality can turn into animals? Newsom could also be suggesting a link to the reaction of society towards the Dennis Nielsen case, as many people described him as an animal. Bacon often aimed to portray the human body as meat. An example of this is in his painting George Dyer in a mirror created in 1963, where the reflection in a mirror which is painted next to Dyers face reflects a further distortion which looks like slabs of meat. Perhaps Bacon was suggesting that if you see the human body as a slab of meat you do not see it as having any feelings and this is further suggested by the violence that runs through the image, which is enhanced by Bacons use of harsh brushstrokes. I do not believe that Bacon was as interested in challenging or expressing his views on homosexuality as much as Newson, as he was never an activist. And perhaps because of his associations with queer or camp effeminate homosexuals, he did not feel the need to strive for an acknowledgement that would eventually lead to move fundamental changes in society, (such as the civil ceremonies and legal right). His association with the art establishment would also have provided him with many influential friends and he may not have felt he was in a minority or an outsider. However I do believe that they both were interested in making reference to the suffering and effects homosexuals experienced by the discrimination they receive, and strove to communicate their experiences honestly in their art. 6 Conclusions It is no surprise that both Lloyd Newsons, Francis Bacons and to some extent Oscar Wildes homosexual referenced work received objections from many members in society. For example, Margaret Thatcher, Tory Prime Minister, described Francis Bacon as that artist who paints those horrible pictures. A well known philistine Thatchers artistic interests seem to be limited to collecting pretty ceramic figurines the remark could be read as referring to both Bacons often violent style of painting and to his usual subject of the interaction between two men, which in Bacons view was neither affectionate nor relaxed but turbulent and traumatic. (1996, Cooper, online) Protests of the openness and public support of acknowledging homosexuality inside and outside of the arts have always occurred. DV8 are one of many to be the creators of art which has provoked these objectors. The Sunday Mirror gave DV8 a massive leg-up. Gay sex orgy on TV shrieked the headline for their story on the screening of Dead Dreams of Monochrome Men, prompting a flood of complaints to the TV network, angry questions in parliament by Tory MPs and a huge surge in DV8s viewing figures. (2008, Roy, online) This still exists today, only last year ago one of the dance works shown at the production of In the Spirit of Diagalev at Sadlers Wells, bought protestors both inside and outside the dance theatre, over its explicitness about sex, homosexuality and the involvement further with the Catholic Church. Conservative elements within society seemed to worry that if sexuality could be questioned then what else could? What could homosexuality lead to? Would control even break down? Although Newson has been more willing to discuss how life and work than Bacon or Wilde, they all shared a need to express their ideas without being restrained by societys reactions to their work. This took considerable bravery the bravery to create art which was so out there for its day meant risk. And without artists taking risks everything will stagnate. I SUGGEST FINISHING HERE NEW I believe that the fact all three of these artist were homosexual are of great importance to their work. I believe if they were not, these works would most likely never of been made, as I am sure it was their experiences as homosexuals, and the hitting of nerves by a harsh society, that encouraged their art. Art always has and I believe will always be a substance of the artists feelings, as what is so beautiful about art, is its ability to be an expressional form.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
How Mary Shelley creates a sense of horror in Frankenstein. Frankenstein Introduction In this essay, I will be writing about how Mary Shelley creates sense of horror in Frankenstein. Horror stories are usually dark and sinister. They are also very mysterious. They mostly use catching background music and horrible settings to create a sense of horror. Mary Shelley creates a sense of horror through the characters, settings and the language. From the beginning of the story, the audience's speculate that there was a reason behind Victor Frankenstein's interest to the anatomy of science. " A mind of moderate capacity, which closely pursues one study, Must infallibly arrive at great proficiency in that study." This creates a sense of horror because it suggests that Frankenstein is obsessed with the subject. It isn't just a plain interest. After his mother died, he was very upset and angry. He wanted to create a living human being- bringing a dead body alive. He wanted to do something that no one else has done. This can be looked at, as a metaphor saying that, he wanted to make something that even nature hasn't even created. This creates a sense of horror because, people in the 19th century were very superstitious and believed that going against the nature means going against God, and that's the worst sin that can be committed. " Darkness had no effect upon my fancy." This creates a sense of horror because he was different from the other people as well as the human characteristics. He had no fear of death or any superstitious belief. He appears as a person who would do anything because he is contending to himself as well as God. He wanted to create something that wouldn't have to follow the procedure of life. "I should attempt the creation of a being like myself" This creates a sense of horror because it suggests that he wants to break the natural chain. He is willing to create a human like himself but it should live for eternity. He wants to prevent death. He wanted to "succeed and arrive at great proficiency in that study". He finally decides to learn everything about human bodies and create a human creature from dead body parts so he started to make framework with bones and organs as an experiment. Frankenstein collects most of the materials that he needs from the charnel house where dead bodies are kept, and also goes to other places that are associated death such as churchyards, the dissecting room and the slaughterhouse. "Churchyard was the receptacle of bodies deprived of life" and "The dissecting room and the slaughter house furnished many of his materials". All these settings creates a sense of horror because, it's set in a
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Social Science and Communication Ã¢â¬ËKathakÃ¢â¬â¢ is one of the most popular forms of Indian classical dance. We have grown up watching it in movies from UmraoJaanuptoDevdas. Most young girls in India even start learning kathak right from the tender age of 5 years. However is kathak just a simple cultural product of the country that can be counted among the artistic treasures of this land or is there a larger understanding to the same? Through this article we shall travel through the journey of time and see how a thing as simple and pure as an ancient dance form can tell us the stories of the cultural, religious, political transformations of the country. The Fifth Veda Traditionally the Hindu society was divided in five varnas Ã¢â¬â Brahmins (intellectuals), Kshatriya (warriors), vaishya (merchants), shudra (manual labourers), achoot (untouchables). The purpose of this form of division was to have a more organized society by distributing it on basis of the type of work performed. However with time this became a hierarchical division of the society which led to oppression of the lower caste (shudra& untouchables) by the upper caste members. In this entire struggle for power the holy hindu scriptures (the Vedas) remained as the sole possession of the Brahmins or the educated class. Any attempt to even touch these holy texts by members of the lower caste was considered a crime. Even our holy text of Ramayana narrates an incident where lord Ram (mariyadapurushottam) chops of the head of a person from the lower caste when he attempts to read the Vedas. The shudraÃ¢â¬â¢s were forbidden to listen to these puranas (holy texts). (Massey, 1999) ItÃ¢â¬â¢s believed that looking at this state of the society gods asked Lord Brahma to devise something which would be accessible to all and bind this society together. This is how the fifth veda or Natya Veda was born. The Hindu epics have stories of brahma teaching Bharata (the then king of Bharat what we know as India) the Natya Veda and later his 100 sons became the authorities of music, dance and drama. The Bharat NatyaShashtra has been variously dated from 2nd century BC to 3rd century AD. This Veda was common for all sections of society and all genders. Stories and teaching were told through dance. This is where we saw the birth of Kathak as a dance form. Kathak Kathak is derived from the root word Katha which means story. Kathak as a dance form was used to narrate stories mainly mythological stories primarily for the function of educating people. This was the only form in which people of all castes and genders could share their learning. This dance form was spread far and wide through abhinayawhich meaning Ã¢â¬Ëa carrying to the spectatorsÃ¢â¬â¢. This form of dance contained various components:(Massey, 1999) Kathak Abhinaya Sentiment and Mood Pure Dance Dramatic Element Vachik: poetry, song, recitation, music and rhythm Aharya: costume, make-up, jewellery Satvik: physical manifestation of mental and emotional states Angik: gestures of the body Nritya Nritta Natya Caste Politics The Hindu caste divide that Kathak tried to dissolve eventually took another form of dominations. The Brahmins saw this movement as a loss of their supremacy and power; hence they brought in another angle to the same. According to the Brahmins since dance was nothing but another form of worshiping god they had the supreme say in these matters. The social anthropology of Kathak dancers in history is thus highly fascinating as it got equated to the priestly caste and even the kathak gurus in the northern belt of india represented the Brahmin status.(Booth, 2005) The Brahmins not only separated this form of dance from its core purpose of binding people across various castes but also hit the gender angle by bringing in the concept of devdasi . These were women who were dedicated to dance and sing only for god. These women were neither allowed to marry, nor have have any form of physical relationships. Thus the power game was won by the Brahmins by playing their cards of caste and gender politics. Gender Politics Traditionally Kathak was meant to be a platform accessible to all. It defamiliarises the ordinary sexual and social experience of women and men as people. Indian mythology also reveals various stories exemplifying gender ambiguity, androgyny, sex transformations, male pregnancy, and erotica through some of the metaphorical discourses related to gods, goddesses, heavenly nymphs, and demons, as well as sages, ascetics and yogis. There have been innumerable examples of transcending gender in kathak. Men dressed like women and performed. The concept of gender in the Natya Veda is highly complex. It believes that gender is past our physical being, it is connected with our soul and souls aspire for the realisation moksha which can only be achieved when one can get free from the shackles of bodily existence. As per the Tantric school of thought the Supreme Being is conceptualised as one complex sex, comprises of both male and female (on the right and left side respectively). In order to attain salvation one must be able to transcend these shackles of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s sex.(Shah, 1998) Even in the Pre-Vedic literature Shiva is known as ardhanarishwara, which means containing the polarities of both male and female force in the form of Shiva-Shakti. Dance is an important means by which cultural ideologies of gender difference are reproduced. Through movement vocabulary, costuming, body image, training, and technique, discourses of dance are often rooted in ideas of natural gender difference However as time passed Kathak also came under the purview of the political game of gender and itÃ¢â¬â¢s got labelled with the tag of being a dance form only for the females. Even the stories narrated through kathak like the stories of lord Krishna have got adapted. Earlier it was believed that Radha was KrihnaÃ¢â¬â¢shladini Shakti and not different from him, hence the dance was performed in a semi-circular manner where the same dancer took the roles of both Krishna and Radha. However, now these roles are performed by different actors.(Chatterjee, 1996) CHANGING DIMENSIONS OF WOMEN The birth of Kathak took place with the Benarasgharana of kathak which was then ruled by the Rajputs. This dance form then travelled to Jaipur establishing the Jaipur gharana of kathak. Though both these forms were highly dominated by females they still had a great respect in terms of an art of telling stories of god and educating others on the powers of truth , righteousness etc. However when the MughalÃ¢â¬â¢s invading our country and the marriage of JodhaBai and Akbar took place two cultured merged together. The Mughals got dancers from Persia and captured women form india and got them trained in kathak. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s from this time onwards that Kathak got labelled as the courtesans dance what we today call as tawaÃ¢â¬â¢if or prostitutes.(Massey, 1999) The costumes changed and the new gharana of Kathak was born which is today the most famous one Ã¢â¬â Luckhnowgharana. The dressed changed from the ghaghra (like a long skirt) to chudidar. The dresses were tighter at the bust and presented the women as a sexually desirable object. A lot of change took place in the basic hand movements and presentation if the dance and a dance that used to tell the love story of Krishna and Radha at one time became a dance form with movements meant to entice men. In the whole power struggle and caste politics it was the women who suffered the most and were heavily exploited. DURING THE COLONIAL INDIA During the British colonial rule dance became a tool of rebellion and political resistance. It demonstrated unity and power. The dancing womenÃ¢â¬â¢s position changed from Ã¢â¬Ëpure and piousÃ¢â¬â¢ to Ã¢â¬Ëfallen and sinfulÃ¢â¬â¢ and hence either victims or perpetuators of the evil of dance. Women were encouraged to display their beauty, energy, skill, sensuality and seductiveness in dance. Thus for the fear of saving there girls from the being looked on as an object of desire dance became a tabooed activity for members of society especially the upper caste. This mindset exists even today, as we donÃ¢â¬â¢t see many girls from the upper class of society taking up dancing. However these mind sets are changing gradually.(Reed, 1998) GURU and SHISHYA As per Natyashashtra an acharya or teacher should have an intrinsic knowledge of vocal and instrumental music, dance, rhythm and movement. He should further have imagination, intelligence, creative faculty, memory, sharpness and capacity to shape the taught. The shishyas, or the taught, on the other hand should be intelligent, retentive, appreciative, devoted, enthusiastic and must have an innate desire to excel. This form of teaching has been continued over time however the essence of the relation has got lost with the loss of the pure and pious status of dance. CULTURAL SYMBOL Today Kathak has been attributed with various new meanings on the global platform like * Traditional heritage of India * Carrier of Indian culture * Indianness * Recounting the significant past Today kathak has become a cultural commodity that gets sold in form of a few dance shows and performances however it has lost its original purpose and ethos(Royo, 2004) KATHAK AND MOVIES Kathak has always been used as an important tool in cinema. In 1955 classic, JhanakJhanakpayalBaje by V. Shantaram the filmÃ¢â¬â¢s hero, Ghirdar competes for artistic supremacy in Kathak dance against another dancer Ram Prasad. GhirdarÃ¢â¬â¢s triumph is ensured during the last series of rhythmic systematic turns or chakkras which he performs elegantly, however his opponent is left all dizzy. Ghirdhar here is from Varanasi, the birthplace of kathak and the ultimate hindu city and his opponent is from Agra the Mughal capital which is associated with the more popular kathakgharana of lucknow. Thus kathak was used to demonstrate a state of communal tension in the country. This art form was also reduced to mockery when UstadHalimJaffar Khan, who worked on Kohinoor, and other films, with Naushad Ali (KohinoorÃ¢â¬â¢s music director), explains that the singing in this scene was undertaken by Niyaz Ahmad: Ã¢â¬Å"Naushad spoke to him about this scene. He said, Ã¢â¬ËPlease forgive me Khan-saheb, but for this scene please sing some tans and things, but in a comic way, in a foolish way.Ã¢â¬â¢ And Nyaz Ahmad agreed to do thatÃ¢â¬ Even in later films kathak remained as a dance of the prostitutes through movies like umraojaan. And even today when we have become more liberal in our thinking and claim to have crossed these old regressive practices the choreographers still use kathak in a ovie like devdas only for the character of chandramukhi, who plays a prostitute. Also todayÃ¢â¬â¢s concert stage kathak is more focused of fast, complex, rhythmic footwork and tracing handwork rather than the old ethos of the dance which had its core around freedom, liberalization, unity, storytelling, love and expression of oneself.(Chakravorty, 2006) CONCLUSION A cultural dance form created to unify everybody and give everyone a freedom to expression eventually got used as a tool for playing out caste and gender politics. Whether it was the sufferings of the women or the link of the dance to the Bhakti movement, Kathak has transformed with all these interactions. The various stakeholders of the society have also used this to their convenience as and when required. Initially the Brahmin established their supremacy over this pure and pious form of expression an today they are the ones who have started the movement to label this as a fallen and sinful act. Thus we have seen the journey of nation through one form of dance and the story of Kathak through the nation. Bibliography Booth, G. (2005). Pandits in the Movies: Contesting the Identity of Hindustani Classical Music and Musicians in. Asian Music, Vol. 36, 60-86. Chakravorty, P. (2006). Dancing into Modernity: Multiple Narratives of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Kathak Dance. Dance Research Journal, Vol. 38, 115-136. Chatterjee, A. (1996). Training in Indian Classical Dance: A Case Study. Asian Theatre Journal, Vol. 13, 68-91. Coorlawala, U. A. (1992). Illustrating Kathak. Dance Chronicle, Vol. 15, 88-93. Lidke, J. S. (2006). DevÃ «Ã¢â¬â¢s Dance: The Interweaving of Politics, Mysticism, and Culture in Kathmandu Valley. International Journal of Hindu Studies, Vol. 10, 35-57. Massey, R. (1999). IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s kathak dance, past present, future. Delhi: Abhinav Publications. Pillai, S. (2002). Rethinking Global Indian Dance through Local Eyes. Dance Research Journal, Vol. 34, 14-29. Reed, S. A. (1998). The Politics and Poetics of Dance. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol 27, 503-532. Royo, A. L. ( 2004). New Directions in Indian Dance. Dance Research Journal, Vol. 36, 135-138. Shah, P. (1998). Transcending Gender in the Performance of Kathak. Dance Research Journal, Vol. 30, 2-17. WALKER, M. (2010). Courtesans and Choreographers: The (Re)Placement of Women in the History of Kathak Dance. New Delhi: Routledge.
Friday, November 8, 2019
Advertising fast food to children Essays Advertising fast food to children Essay Advertising fast food to children Essay Essay on the ethical statements refering the limitation of the advertisement of fast nutrient to kids. 2000 words. This paper examines the altering face of consumer-facing markets, concentrating peculiarly on the increasing force per unit areas for concerns to move both ethically, and responsibly. The peculiar illustration being considered here is that of fast nutrient and confectionary selling to kids, with UK markets supplying the primary empirical focal point. The paper will put out to analyze the groundswhythese force per unit areas are escalating at this clip, whether such tendencies have any logical or theoretical unity, and whether they are sustainable in concern footings. It will try to make so within the established models of some relevant ethical theory, taking history of Virtue moralss, Deontological moralss, and Teleological moralss, every bit good as Utilitarian moralss. Consequently, it will pay peculiar attending to the thought of a binary classification of ethical theoretical accounts, i.e. non-consequentialist or consequentialst Ã¢â¬â as proposed by Fischer and Lovell. As the latter argue, non-consequentialist moralss Ã¢â¬ ¦determine what is right and incorrect from preset rules and criterions. They take no respect of the effects of an actionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ . Meanwhile, consequentialist moralss Ã¢â¬ ¦measure the rightness of a thing harmonizing to whether it brings us close toÃ¢â¬ ¦a desired state.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Fischer and Lovell, 2006: p.101 ) . This paper concludes by reasoning that neither authorities nor supra-national bureaus can run any strictly ethical policies in this peculiar market, and that important behavioral alteration can merely have at an single degree. As the Parliamentary Office of Science and engineering puts it, Obesity occurs when an single takes in more energy than they expend, although some people are genetically more susceptibleÃ¢â¬ ¦the WHO/FAO expert group found converting grounds that high consumption of energy dense nutrients is a hazard factorÃ¢â¬ ¦it besides found that heavy selling of fast nutrients and high consumptions of sugar sweetened drinks were likely hazard factorsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2003: p.2. ) To such mensural appraisals can be added the more alarmist commentaries in the mainstream UK imperativeness: as theDaily Mailobserves, Obesity rates in Britain are soaringÃ¢â¬ ¦Despite Government warnings that we are turning into a state of sofa murphies and put on the lining obesity-related unwellnesss such as bosom disease and malignant neoplastic disease, our waistlines maintain growing.Ã¢â¬â¢ (Daily Mail2007 ) . The authorities itself, holding banned smoking from public topographic points, and fought a running conflict with the accredited industry over responsible intoxicant ingestion, has so far had small tummy for intercession in big diets. It is a different affair, nevertheless, in the instance of kids. In 2006, Caroline Flint, so curate for public wellness, told the influential Food Advertising Unit s one-year conference that the authorities would watch closely how companies complied with Ofcom s infliction of a nine oÃ¢â¬â¢clock watershed on fast nutrient publicities. We re clearly traveling to be supervising in footings of its impactÃ¢â¬â¢ warned Ms Flint, adding that she would be happy to see healthier sorts of nutrient and drink merchandises advertised to kids. There are some existent opportunitiesÃ¢â¬â¢ she said, noting that food market retail merchants had done a good occupation of Ã¢â¬ ¦marketing healthier foods.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Wiggins 2006: n.p. ) . However, as some perceivers closely associated with the attempted reform of dietetic gustatory sensations observe, the overall statistics mask more complex forms of ingestion mediated through societal category, context, income and chance. Liam Black, a close concern associate of dietetic candidate and famous person chef Jamie Oliver, warns that, Ã¢â¬ ¦Obesity can non be driven back with a program for virally marketing Italian nutrient formulas scribbled on a impudent chart, as Mr. Oliver appears to believe. The hapless manÃ¢â¬â¢s diet is non the consequence of a deficiency of will but a symptom of a broader societal malaiseÃ¢â¬ ¦You canÃ¢â¬â¢t merely ride in on an organically-fed Equus caballus and hole it.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Guthrie 2008: n.p. ) . However, where it has direct influence or control, for illustration in a school environment, it can be argued that the authorities does so hold a authorization and duty to step in. It has done so substantively through its Healthy Schools Programme, Schools Fruit and Ve getable Scheme, and the Physical Education, School Sport Club links programme ( PESSCL ) . ( Teachernet 2008: n.p. ) . What so are the ethical issues for those involved in the selling and publicity of fast nutrient to kids? Of the theoretical accounts outlined above, which may be most usefully applied in this instance? As Fischer and Lovell point out, Virtue moralss is non a system of regulations, butÃ¢â¬ ¦a set of personal features thatÃ¢â¬ ¦will guarantee that the person is likely to do the rightÃ¢â¬â¢ pick within any ethically complex situation.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Fischer and Lovell, 2006: p.102 ) . In its strictest footings, the demand implicit in Deontological Ethics proscribes the net income maximization which fast nutrient concerns are, logically, edge to prosecute. However, as Fischer and Lovell besides indicate. One possible manner out of this cul-de-sac is to make a hierarchy of categorical jussive moods. In this manner the categorical jussive mood of always tell the truthÃ¢â¬â¢ would be inferior to the categorical jussive mood of Ã¢â¬ ¦lie if it will salvage an guiltless lifeÃ¢â¬â¢ . ( Fis cher and Lovell, 2006: p.111 ) . Meanwhile Teleological moralss, as the same governments indicate, Ã¢â¬ ¦combine an purpose to work towards an terminal with a peculiar position of what establishments are necessary to accomplish itÃ¢â¬ ¦This term means that the rightness or goodness of an action is non intrinsic to that action but can merely be judged by its consequences.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Fischer and Lovell, 2006: p.124 ) . When these ideal typeÃ¢â¬â¢ ethical places are considered, it shortly becomes clear that the chase of commercial or corporate terminals sits uncomfortably with an direct application of Virtue, Deontological or Teleological moralss. Does the staying theoretical account, that of Utilitarian moralss, supply a clearer analysis? Again, it may be helpful to mention to Fischer and LovellÃ¢â¬â¢s perceptual experience of what they see as act utilitarianismÃ¢â¬â¢ . One danger of Utilitarianism, which cost-benefit analysis is designed to turn to, is that organisations seek to maximisea goodinstead thanthe good.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Fischer and Lovell, 2006: p.131 ) . Arguably, it is the useful place to which the authorities can put claim in trying to restrict the selling of fast nutrient to kids. In a typical theoretical account of official intercession, it is neer rather that simple nevertheless. In its most basic signifier, Benthamite utilitarianism would raise a greatest felicity of the greatest number-typeÃ¢â¬â¢ policy government. In other words, facts would be elicited by official question, and thesalus populisought through calibrated statute law, with cardinal grants to single autonomy. Commercial and financial force per unit areas would so encroach on the procedure, including ( intelligibly ) opaque buttonholing from the fast nutrient corporations themselves. For illustration, from a wellness position, there can be few useful statements for the continued right to smoke. For a assortment of grounds nevertheless, there remains small chance of the authorities wholly censoring it. The instance of fast nutrient is arguably a more complex one, with the positive and negative statements less clearly defined. Although the general bias would likely keep that fast nutrientdoescontribute to fleshiness, diabetes, and other wellness jobs, the load of cogent evidence in single instances lies really much with the anti-fast nutrient anteroom at present. For illustration, consecutive American legal instances seeking punitory amendss from nutrient ironss have so far borne no fruit, although, as Grant studies, Ã¢â¬ ¦the determination ( to continue the claimantÃ¢â¬â¢s instance ) puts the fast nutrient companies back in the sauteing pan, at least temporarily, it merely allows the claims to last procedurally for one more unit of ammunition of discoveryÃ¢â¬ ¦.It was still unsure how far the test tribunal will let find to come on before. . . sing dismissalÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Grant 2005: n.p. ) . As Wiggins studies, new airing guidelines have besides prompted originative response s from makers, such as the increased usage of digital selling: PepsiÃ¢â¬â¢s picture web site www.maxyourlife.com is a cardinal illustration. ( Wiggins 2006: n.p. ) Meanwhile, apparently benign and ethical promotional runs such as CadburyÃ¢â¬â¢sGet Activeverifiers, in world offered kids a free volleyball in return for devouring the equivalent of 5,440 bars of cocoa. ( Lee et al 2005: p.211 ) . Taking this sort of activity into history, it is clear that official force per unit areas on fast nutrient selling may be the soft option for authoritiess caught between useful force per unit areas and broad expedience. From a corporate point of view, the job is more clear cut. As Altman observes, using a Kantian analysis: From a Kantian position, a corporation can hold no duty at all. Insofar as it is a tool, and a good tool performs its designated map good, a good corporation maximizes net incomes for its shareholders.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Altman 2007: p.261 ) In the concluding analysis, the outlook that corporate endeavors will one-sidedly withdraw from moneymaking markets fails to admit the existent nature of the typical council chamber moral force, and the hegemony of stockholders in seeking dividends. As Monks and Minow point out, stockholders should try to maximize contestability in the corporate paradigm by seeking board members who will replace under-performing troughs when necessary , and by replacing board members who will non accept this responsibility.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Monks and Minow, 2004: p.516 ) . The restriction of fast nutrient selling through the media may good hold Ã¢â¬â in little portion at least Ã¢â¬â the coveted consequence on childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s diets. There is small grounds at present nevertheless, that their appetency for Ã¢â¬â or ingestion of Ã¢â¬â fast nutrient, is decreasing. As Wiggins studies, Ã¢â¬ ¦KFC s determination to cut back on advertisement to kids does non look to hold had an impact on its concern. The group s portion of the UK fast nutrient market rose to 12.4 per cent in 2005 from 11.9 per cent in 2002 Ã¢â¬â¢ ( Wiggins 2006: n.p. ) . It may besides be argued that implementing dietetic alteration is non truly the map of selling controls, which simply illustrate the bounds of authorities authorization over what is basically a affair of single pick. Whereasanybaccy ingestion is deemed medically harmful, merely continuedover-ingestion of fat, salt and sugar can hold the same consequence. The authorities therefore has no authorization for legislative intervention in retailing, where such simple binary determinations but healthy/unhealthy are non applicable. Conversely, the fast nutrient ironss have strong inducements to collaborate with official guidelinesbeforeauthorities is forced to pass. An illustration of this occurred in New York City, where Board of Health h earings prompted the matter-of-fact backdown of unreal trans fats or hydrogenated oils from KFC mercantile establishments. ( Foster 2006: n.p. ) The same discretional moderateness of marketing proverb KFC stop its policy of offering playthings as portion of its Kids ChoiceÃ¢â¬â¢ bill of fare. ( Wiggins 2006: n.p. ) . In world, informedgovernments know that superficial dietetic counsel can non be a replacement for the deep social intercession required. As IASCO and the British Medical Association jointly express it, Ã¢â¬ ¦Interventions at the household or school degree will necessitate to be matched by alterations in the societal and cultural context so that the benefits can be sustained and enhanced. Such bar schemes will necessitate a co-ordinated attempt between the medical community, wellness decision makers, instructors, parents, nutrient manufacturers and processors, retail merchants and caterers, advertizers and the media, diversion and athletics contrivers, urban designers, metropolis contrivers, politicians and legislators.Ã¢â¬â¢ ( IASCO 2008: n.p. ) . If this is accepted, it will necessitate much more than a nine oÃ¢â¬â¢clock media watershed for fast nutrient selling, to control childhood fleshiness. Bibliography Altman, M.C. , ( 2007 ) , The Decomposition of the Corporate BodyÃ¢â¬â¢ ,Journal of Business Ethical motives,Vol.74, No.3, pp.253-266, Springer, USA. Blythman, J. , ( 2005 ) ,Shopped: The Shocking Power of British Supermarkets, Harper Perrenial, London. Cadbury-Schweppes, ( 2006 ) , Corporate and Social Responsibility Report, London. Carroll A.B. and Buchholz A. ( 2003 ) ,Business and Society: Ethical motives and Stakeholder direction, 5th Ed, Thomson: South-Western. Chryssides, G.D. and Kaler, J.H. ( Eds ) , ( 1993 )An Introduction to Business Ethical motives, Chapman and Hall, London. Daily Mail14ThursdayAugust 2007. De George, R. T. , ( 1995 ) ,Business Ethical motives,4ThursdayEdition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Donaldson, T. , and Werhane, P.H. , ( 1988 ) ,Ethical Issues in Business: A Philosophical Approach,Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J. Bouckaert, L. , ( 1994 ) , Business and CommunityÃ¢â¬â¢ in Harvey, B. , ( 1994 ) , ( erectile dysfunction ) ,Business Ethical motives, a European Approach,Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ. pp.154-191. Fisher, C. , Lovell, A. , ( 2006 ) ,Business Ethical motives and Valuess, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, London. Foster, L. , NYC Considers ban on unhealthy fatsÃ¢â¬â¢ ,Financial Times,31 Oct 2006, INTERNET, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ft.com/cms/s/0/7d22d2ae-6885-11db-90ac-0000779e2340.html [ viewed 12.10.08 ] , n.p. Grant, J. , Fast-food Sellerss fear the fat will get down actioning themÃ¢â¬â¢ ,Financial Times,1stFeb 2005, INTERNET, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ft.com/cms/s/0/416e23a0-74a1-11d9-a769-00000e2511c8.html [ viewed 12.10.08 ] , n.p. Guthrie, J. , Man in the intelligence: Jamie OliverÃ¢â¬â¢ ,Financial Times,3 Oct 2008, INTERNET, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ft.com/cms/s/0/069bcf58-9175-11dd-b5cd-0000779fd18c.html, [ viewed 12.10.08 ] n.p. Harvey, B. , ( 1994 ) , ( erectile dysfunction ) ,Business Ethical motives, a European Approach,Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ. Hooley, G. , Saunders, J. , A ; Piercy, N. , ( 2004 )Marketing Strategy and Competitive Positioning( 3rdEdition ) Prentice Hall, Essex. IASCO, International Association for the Study of Obesity,Childhood Obesity Sydney Principles Consultation,INTERNET, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.iotf.org/childhoodobesity.asp [ viewed 14.10.08 ] , n.p. John Lewis Partnership Plc Annual Report and Accounts, 2007. Lee, K. , Carter, S. , ( 2005 ) , Global Marketing Management: Changes, Challenges and New Strategies, Oxford, p.211. Monks, R. , and Minow, N. , ( 2004 ) ,Corporate Administration, Basil Blackwell, Oxford. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, ( 2003 ) , Childhood ObesityÃ¢â¬â¢ ,Postnote,Sept, No.5. Post, J. , Lawrence, A.T. , and Weber, J. , ( 2002 ) ,Business and Society: Corporate Strategy, Public Policy, Ethics,McGraw Hill, Boston. J.Sainsbury Plc, Annual Report and Financial Statement 2005. Teachernet, ( 2008 ) , Tackling the growing in childhood obesityÃ¢â¬â¢ , INTERNET, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.teachernet.gov.uk/wholeschool/healthyliving/obesity/ [ viewed 12.10.08 ] , n.p. Varley, R. , ( 2001 ) ,Retail Product Management, Routledge, London. Wiggins, J. , Fast Food Chains Curb Targeting of ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢ ,Financial Times,15 Nov 2006, INTERNET, available at hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ft.com/cms/s/0/421ffd10-744e-11db-8dd7-0000779e2340.html [ viewed 12.10.08 ] , n.p.
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
A Summary of the Libertarian Party Platform Like most political platforms, the Libertarian party platform is vague and abstract. It also tends to be a little bit utopian in its approach, and this can make it difficult to ascertain where the party stands on specific issues facing the country at any given time. Libertarian Party Platform Fiscal policy:Ã The Libertarian party opposes taxation in pretty much all forms, and it deals with the revenue loss by opposing entitlement programs across the board. This means that people keep more of what they earn, but it also means that there is no social safety net. Ambitious, sweeping proposals - such as universal pre-kindergarten and universal health care - are obviously not compatible with this objective.Corporations:Ã The party would eliminate all federal subsidies to private corporations, as well as all antitrust laws.Public services: The Libertarian party would like to eliminate the U.S. Postal Service. It wants to transfer all government services, from public schools to landfills, to private ownership.Property rights:Ã The party would restrict the public domain to immediate public use and sell or give away most public property to private owners.Criminal justice: It would eliminate all anti-drug laws and legalize prostitution, as well as end random police roadbloc ks.Free speech:Ã The party would abolish the FCC and allow private ownership of broadcast frequencies. It opposes all restriction of free speech, including that in the name of national security. Church and state:Ã The Libertarian party calls for reduced IRS regulation and monitoring of tax-exempt churches.The Second Amendment:Ã The party strongly opposes all gun control, as well as regulation of alternative weapon technologies, such as mace and tasers.Ã The draft: It calls for the abolition of the Selective Service System and amnesty for any citizen who has ever resisted the draft.Reproductive rights:Ã The Libertarian party is pro-choice. It opposes all federal funding of abortion and most federal entitlements for women who choose to carry their pregnancies to term, including the child tax credit. it opposes involuntary or fraudulent sterilization.LGBT rights: The party opposes the dont ask, dont tell doctrine. It believes that marriage is a private contract, and as such, it should yield no government benefits regardless of the gender of the partners.Immigrants rights: The Libertarian party argues that borders should be open but surveilled. Everyone who does not pose a threat to public health or national security should be allowed to enter the country legally. It would deny all federal benefits to undocumented immigrants.
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Security Incident Case Study - Essay Example This paper seeks to describe how effectively an emergency incident that occurred in Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), at 2:38pm, Terminal 4, would have be managed and highlight how effective airport operators can be, when during emergencies. In this case, where a man trespasses through a restricted doorway, there is actually no need for the crew to lower security gates and order out everyone off the secured gate including the passengers who are already aboard waiting to depart. Since itÃ¢â¬â¢s a breech that is only confined to a limited space, the best thing to do would be; assuming that the cameras in that terminal are working, trail the person in question quietly and swiftly without drawing unnecessary attention from the other parties. The evacuation process is so hectic and time consuming; and one that would literally paralyse operations throughout the entire airport. In addition; and as observed in our case study, it is more likely to cause a lot of panic and confusion, in turn making the whole process of trailing the individual in question futile. Finally, given that people will be aware of an anomaly happening at the airport; it is more likely to trigger unexpected reactions. People may start running and in the process injure each other. In conclusion, as analysed in the paper, as an airport operator, your duty is not to bring about confusion and add complexity to arising problems. With this case, and other emergency issues that arise, it is the airportÃ¢â¬â¢s duty to ensure that the safety of everyone is guaranteed and the simplest method is used in combating any possible
Friday, November 1, 2019
Entrepreneurship and Small business. MKT2290 - Essay Example The corporate strategy plays a significant role at building a bridge between the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s inner policies and the undertakings it has with the various stakeholders, who could be from the external marketing settings. (Korzeniowski, 2001) In the world of today, external marketing environment has gained a lot of essence due to the fact that it brings into picture the real role of the channel members, middle line managers and wholesalers as well as other personnel who do their bit towards completing different activities and tasks, coming directly under the auspices of the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s hold. (Applbaum, 2004) What is therefore necessary in such a situation is to be open to all forms of criticisms which could be raised by the various stakeholders and parties hailing from the external marketing environment and the related regimes. This will present the said organization with a host of options when it devises a plan to counter the problems which it is facing at the hands of the external marketing environment and the different players present within the very same environmental settings. Problems stumbled upon by the business at one region or at a local franchise would mean that the company should be ready to bear lo sses of an unimaginable cost. More than that, the company will lose its self-won respect and dignity around which shareholders and owners, etc are revolving around. Long range planning can help a particular company gain so much in accordance with its goals and objectives that had been planned and drafted but in the current times more and more attention and emphasis is making the rounds of the discussion as to whether these plans can actually deliver what was expected of them in the first place. Now we shift to the methodology and rationale behind building competitive advantage. This is something that is build over time and requires synchronization between the