Monday, September 30, 2019
A considerable number of scholars agree that the domination of capital, which prevails not only on the socio-economic order but also on the production of ideas and ideologies, is responsible for the fragmentation of cultures ensuing from the destruction of human relationships and interaction. The latter arises from the permeation of capitalism into the value systems, and, as suggested by Buber, ultimately creating the Ã¢â¬ËI-ItÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship, in which individuals identify increasingly with material goods, or derive their sense of fulfillment from consuming goods and the symbols attached to these, rather than the Ã¢â¬ËI-thouÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship or the cultivation of meaningful relationships with their fellow individuals. As individuals seek their sense of being from consumption, they are alienated more and more from society, which scholars such as Kasser (2003) suggests would lead into the loss of meaning in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life and the frustration that goes with it. This frustration is reinforced by societal standards that put premium over the accumulation of material wealth over non-material fulfillment. The Pursuit of Money, Depression, and Alienation This is illustrated in the life story of C.P. Ellis, a man driven to join the Klu Klux Klan by his frustration over their familyÃ¢â¬â¢s impoverishment and his own insecurity over being a low-income, white American, and his transformation into a contented labor union organizer despite. Born into a poor family, EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ depression over his and his familyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial status started from being perceived by others as Ã¢â¬Ëpoor and impoverishedÃ¢â¬â¢ in his childhood, as reflected by the way he felt people treated him and his father: Ã¢â¬Å"somebody looking at him and making fun of him and making fun of me.Ã¢â¬ His fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s unhappiness mirror the same unhappiness that characterized EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ life as he struggled to make ends meet for his own family later on, to Ã¢â¬Å"work, never a day without work, worked all the overtime I could get.Ã¢â¬ EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ predicament, according to Kasser (2003), is typical of Ã¢â¬Å"people who strongly value the pursuit of wealth and possessions.Ã¢â¬ Kasser notes that these people Ã¢â¬Å"report lower psychological well-being than those who are less concerned with such aims.Ã¢â¬ Not surprisingly, EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ earlier experiences wherein his concern and frustration over Ã¢â¬Ëfinancial freedomÃ¢â¬â¢ is marked by the absence of a social life and of meaningful interactions with people as his life is taken over by the need to his above his socio-economic status. This makes him unable to see people beyond the labels and the propaganda, and also illustrate the attraction of the Ku Klux Klan to white, low-income individuals. Thus, EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ motivation for joining the Ku Klux Klan, is his resentment and bitterness to his inability to move up the rungs of the economic and social ladder. Racist Organizations and the Reinforcement of Social Isolation The Ku Klux Klan, as a group that presents itself as the Ã¢â¬Å"savior of the white race,Ã¢â¬ also contains within itself the racist symbols of being superior, a superiority complex that is based on the skin color of being white. The Ku Klux Klan therefore presents an opportunity to feel power in another way, by vowing to Ã¢â¬Å"uphold the purity of the white race, fight communism, and protect white womanhood.Ã¢â¬ .For C.P. Ellis, the moment of Ã¢â¬ËempowermentÃ¢â¬â¢ is his being Ã¢â¬Ëexalted CyclopsÃ¢â¬â¢ of the Klan but it is merely an extension of his yearning for a higher social status: Ã Ã¢â¬Å"HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a guy whoÃ¢â¬â¢s worked all his life and struggled all his life to be something, and hereÃ¢â¬â¢s the moment to be something.Ã¢â¬ However, the Klu Klux Klan does not give its members a sense of fulfillment that is based on being able to cultivate a meaningful relationship between its members, but reinforces the isolation of another marginalized sector of societyÃ¢â¬âthe black people. Moreover, the KlanÃ¢â¬â¢s power is based not on the empowerment of the sector it represents; On the contrary, it blurs its membersÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to recognize the real problems of social inequality by curiously turning to the blacks as a channel for the dissipation of its anger. While Ellis is interested in the Klan for its sense of belonging, he was more drawn to the aspect of being in controlÃ¢â¬âsomething that, while he clearly could not achieve by being poor, he could at least exercise on people deemed to be inferior by society. Ellis, however, was not intent on deriving meaning from the sort associated with Ã¢â¬Å"spirituality and religionÃ¢â¬ ¦ home life, relationships, and familyÃ¢â¬ ¦having fun and excitementÃ¢â¬ ¦and contributing to the communityÃ¢â¬ (Kasser 2003). He was merely looking for a scapegoat to focus his resentment on, from which he thought he could attain the Ã¢â¬Å"large number of possible goals people might have, such as desires to feel safe and secure, to help the world be a better place, to have a great sex life, and to have good relationships with other.Ã¢â¬ (Kasser 2003) In this phase of his life, Ellis therefore retains the Ã¢â¬ËI-itÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship in his life suggested by Buber through his remaining fixation with material wealth and the social status that comes with it. Transformation, Empowerment, and Redemption Ironically, C.P. EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ genuine empowerment would come not from material success but from disillusionment with the false power of the Klu Klux Klan and subsequent transformation into a man who recognized that people were more than their skin color. This would come from his reluctant involvement with the efforts to minimize racial discrimination in which he was forced to work with Ann AtwaterÃ¢â¬âa black civil rights advocateÃ¢â¬âto pursue a better school system for their children. EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ transformation would not be easy, however, and it would only come with the realization that those who had economic and political power were using the rift between the blacks and the whites to further their own agendas: Ã¢â¬Å"As long as they kept low-income whites and low income blacks fighting, theyÃ¢â¬â¢re gonna maintain control.Ã¢â¬ This realization would preclude his transformation as he knew more about the relationship between economic status and political power, and as he realized the importance of solidarity with his fellow poor: Ã¢â¬Å"The whole world was opening up , and I was learning new truths that I had never learned before. I was beginning to look at a black person, shake hands with him, and see him as a human being.Ã¢â¬ The attainment of wealth would grow less and less for C. P. Ellis as he discovered that although material things were important to people, individuals should not let it rule their lives. Consequently, EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ concern on Ã the goals of the labor union with which he would be involved in later, would give him more happiness and fulfillment, his sense of self mirroring Ã¢â¬Å"the state attained by people motivated by growth, meaning, and aesthetics, rather than by insecurity and the attempt to fit in with what other people expectÃ¢â¬ (Kasser, 2003). EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ life and general direction is now a stark contrast to the sense of Ã¢â¬Å"low well-being, high distress, and difficulty adjusting to lifeÃ¢â¬ (Kasser, 2003) that he experienced earlier in his life when his sense of self was anchored on material possessions. C.P. EllisÃ¢â¬â¢ life and experience therefore reflects the dangers of material wealth as a central figure in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life. It provides a concrete example of one manÃ¢â¬â¢s transcendence over the alienation that people in a highly consumerist and materialist society experiences, and illustrates the importance of establishing an Ã¢â¬Å"I-ThouÃ¢â¬ basis of our identity and sense of self rather than anchoring our lives to the pursuit of financial gains. More importantly, it shows how having control on oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life will not be achieved solely by having financial control, but by being able to appease our conscience, and striving for the higher ideals of humanity. Ã Ã Ã
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Summarise the main development of a child from age range 0-2years, 3-5years and 5-8 years. Physical development of children varies within very wide limits, depending on the weight and size at the birth, nutrition and health, but also the genetic heritage (parents or grandparents size).Physical development0-2 yearsWhen a baby is born, for first three months he lie on their back, but is able to make basic distinction in vision, hearing, smelling, tasting, touching. Many people think babies are helpless, but they are born with the ability to do few things: they can recognize their mumÃ¢â¬â¢s voice and smell, they are able to cry and let everyone know when they need help. Babies are born with many reflexes which are actions that they perform without thinking. Around three months baby will start lifting his head and will be able to kick.As time goes, the baby will be able to grasp objects and try to put that in their mouth. Mobility usually comes at the ages of nine to twelve months. Th ey will be able to crawl and some might be able to sit and walk unaided. They can hold and throw toys. At the age of one most babies can climb up the stairs (with adult help). Children at two years age are very mobile. They will be able to throw and kick a ball but may not be very confident to catch it.3-5 yearsChildren of three years age will be able to walk, run and jump from low heights. By three a child will have learnt most methods of movement, they will be able to walk backwards and sideways, and may even jump from low heights, they should also be able to ride a tricycle. When a child is four years old they can catch, throw and kick a ball with full confidence. They are able to walk in a straight line. At four they should be able to catch, throw, kick and bounce balls and should also be confident with balance. By the time a child reaches their fifth birthday, changes in physical development are much rapid .Usually by five they moves freely and with pleasure and confidence in a range of ways, such as rolling, crawling,Ã walking, running, skipping, sliding and hopping.5-8yearsAt age of 5-8 the child has lots of energy, plus the balance and coordination for lots of activities, including swimming, riding a bike, skipping and playing with a ball. Their balance and agility will have increased enormously by this age.Intellectual Development0-2 yearsFrom birth children begin to learn how to use their senses to explore the world around them. Within the early months a child will make eye contact and be able to turn their head to the smell of their mother breasts. At age of three months babies smile back when they see a smiling face. By six months babies have learnt many skills, they are very alert and turn their heads to see what is happening. They enjoy playing, they can now reach out and grab a toy and over it from one hand to another. By two years old, children are very much showing their individuality. They know what they want to do, touch and hold. They enj oy singing and dancing to music, pointing to picture of familiar objects and naming them.3-5 yearsAt age three their concentration grows and they are able to control pencils and paintbrushes, at four years old their memory will develop quickly, and should be able to build things with small blocks. They respond well to adult praise and recognition. Children ask questions and enjoy talking. Around the age of five a child should be able to count confidently and recognize letters and most children have begun in formal education.5-8 yearsBetween the age six and eight years the childÃ¢â¬â¢s reading and mathematics skills will have develop a lot and they will be able to read and write independently.Language Development 0-2 yearsFrom birth to three months they are crying and cooing and they can recognise and respond to sounds. At three Ã¢â¬âsix months they star imitate the sounds that they recognize. At age one children can are beginning to talk and can say Ã¢â¬Å"mamaÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬ Å"dadaÃ¢â¬ . At age of two children start to talk and enjoy talking.3-5 yearsBetween the age of three and five they would be able to learn songs and rhymes .They will enjoy listening to stories. At age of five they will become very confident speaker.5-8 yearsAt this age children are able to describe things accurately and they will use a much wider vocabulary and of words.Emotional Developent0-2 yearsBabies start to smile and to recognize the face and voice of their mother or carer. They start being aware about the people that they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know and they enjoy being secure . from one to two they will become aware of the moods of those around them.3-5 yearsAt this stage the children can communicate what they are feeling. At the age of five they can control their own emotions.5-8 yearsAt this stage the child starts to feel sensitive about who other children feel about him. They may compare themselves to their friends and peers (Ã¢â¬Å"He is better at drawing than I amÃ¢â¬ or Ã ¢â¬Å"She is a better soccer playerÃ¢â¬ ). They will experience a variety of mood changes as they grow in years and develop.Social Development0-2 yearsFrom birth till age of nine months the babies are very sociable, from nine to twelve months they will discover who to play alone and they will not be as dependent on others for their entertainment. Between one and two years old they become more confident and independent3-5 yearsChildren enjoy making friends and sociailsing. They enjoy being with others and they can choose what is good and wrong and understand the importance of sharing and tacking turns.5-8 yearsAt the age of six some children become less sociable and some prefer to have one special friend. They start having their social circle where they find themselves comfortable. Analyse key social, economic and environmental factors, which may influence development There are many factors that influence child development, and for most of them, we do have some control.Every child deserves the opportunity to blossom. Love is very important when we speak about the social development. When the child feels the love and affection from his carer or parent he can make friends and progress well in development and he is happy emotionally. When the love is missing you can observe sad children, neglected, isolated, unfriendly, upset There are socio-economic trends that can influence child development. It is true that poorer families are at a disadvantage when it comes to providing the richest environment for a child to grow. Many families must rely on public education that may not be the best in their area. It is very difficult for poor families when a child needs special services to aid development.A child will benefit more when a parent work part time and spend more quality time with the child, but in some situation this is not possible. A loving caring environment can benefit more than having a lots of money, although the child may not have expensive items, but he w ill benefit by been happy and loved. Children living in poverty may also have poor nutrition, limiting their ability to reach their potential. Environmental influences on child development, as opposed to genetic influences which are not in our power. The world around us has a major part in shaping the child. A child's environment Ã¢â¬â for example, his family or school Ã¢â¬â plays a huge part in his development. Simply stated, a nurtured child will do better than a deprived child.That may seem like common sense, but you may not realize the little things that make a difference. Some assume that a rich privileged child will automatically thrive more than a child living in poverty. That is not always the case. An environmental factor which can also affect the children be when the family is moving house. This aspect affect the child who is losing the current friends and school and the child can be anxious and withdrawn. Losing their friends can be as traumatic as losing a favorite toy. Describe childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s overall development needsA child development is split into main parts physical, intellectual, social/emotional, language. All children need stability, good home, encouragement from parents, the correct nutrition in order for them to grow and develop well. Love is very important for their emotional and physical development. Children also need stability with their homes, parents, friends.They can be seriously affected if a divorce occurs between theirÃ parents. In order to grow they need to benefit by a good dietary and nutrition habits. Lots of vegetables and fruits are recommended. Exercises, sports are also good for their physical development. The fresh air, a walk in the park or somewhere to explore and learn more about the environment.
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Candide is a French satire novella first published in 1759 by Gabriel Cramer in Paris, France, and written by FranÃ §ois-Marie Arouet, or Voltaire, his pen name, a philosopher of the Age of Enlightenment. This book was chosen to show what life was like in France prior to the French Revolution and to provide an overview of the political issues of that period. Reading the book provided context for discussing various themes, including the importance of reason, the corruption of the church, money and power, inequality, which were all-pressing issues in the time period we studied. The book was useful to our course of studies because it detailed what life was like in France during the middle of the 18th century and provided context for what was taught in class--for example corruption by powerful forces in French society, such as the unfair treatment and pay between serfs and their feudal lords. A number of historical events lead Voltaire to write Candide. The first was the publication of Leibniz's "Monadology", an essay discussing LeibnizÃ¢â¬â¢ philosophy of optimism. Two other historical events, the Seven YearsÃ¢â¬â¢ War and the 1775 Lisbon earthquake, also provided inspiration to Voltaire. The close of the LeibnizÃ¢â¬â¢ piece, "Therefore this is the best of all possible worlds", serves as the primary basis for VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s satire. Things were not so good in France, at the time for the majority of the French people and there was not much reason for optimism. Voltaire rejected Leibnizian optimism because if he was in the best of all possible worlds, a tragic and devastating earthquake should not have occurred. Natural disasters simply do not fit into the philosophy of optimism. VoltaireÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view is very logicergy goes into the work, and he stops all of his previous philosophical speculation. Finally, he is content. The text was entertaining, but highly improbable, and provides a good perspective from which to view the culture and politics of Spain and France in the mid-1700Ã¢â¬â¢s. The themesÃ¢â¬âthe hypocrisy of religion, the foolishness of optimism, the uselessness of philosophical speculation and the corrupting influence of power and moneyÃ¢â¬âare expressed in an wildly entertaining manner. I found the way Voltaire interwove the characters with his themes and used satire most interesting. He made the characters whose opinions he disagreed with look like fools in order to discredit their beliefs, and he made his points through characters that were likable. Candide was definitely worth reading and packed in a lot of history and philosophy into a fast-paced, action story.
Friday, September 27, 2019
Swift Water Rescue - Research Paper Example This paper will discuss the different skills and knowledge that one needs to acquire in order to understand the rescue process. Over the past years, deaths related with drowning in the water bodies have been on the increase. This has been attributed to lack of knowledge on how to deal with incidents occurring on the sea and fast moving waters. The incidents may occur when the victim intentionally enters an unknown body of water, when a vessel capsizes, or when someone without training attempts to save someone who is drowning. Special training is required for a person to be certified as a swift water rescuer. And the rescuer must be physically capable of engaging the rough waters in order to save another. One skilled in boat racing cannot be certified based on that capability. And another who can swim fast will not guarantee that he will qualify as a swift water first responder. A swift water rescuer, besides having sufficient training is saving people, should also know how to use rescue tools and equipment. And more than that, the rescuer must also wear personal protective gears so that he or she may not sustain bodily harm. With the rough nature of swift water, the rescuer may not be able to predict or control its movement that would push the rescuer towards huge and pointed rocks, and ultimately cause trauma to the head or other parts of the body. Swift water rescue involves the removal of a victim from a body of water. This requires a person to have the right skills and knowledge to handle the problem effectively. A rescuer should put on the right attire to protect oneself from suffocation and being hurt during the rescue process. There are devices that ensure that the rescuer is well protected and armed in the rescue process. For instance, overalls are made of high-density polypropylene webbing that makes the rescuer clean and
Thursday, September 26, 2019
My experience viewing in 1869 - Essay Example I am finally on the grounds of the globe amphitheater. As expected, the grounds are crowded with playgoers. There is an array of activities with merchants selling refreshments to the playgoers. Just by looking at the dress code of the playgoers I can almost tell that this play has attracted more groundlings than the previous one. I make my way to the stall selling hazelnuts and oranges, and I purchase some for my refreshment during the act. At the entrance, to the globe is a box where all playgoers deposit their entrance fee (Wilson &Alvin 17). I join the growing queue and after a few minutes am at the entrance. Upon placing my entrance fee in the box, I find my way to the theatre pit from where I will catch the play. On arrival at the pit, I discovered that I am amongst the first of to arrive in this section. I am fortunate to find sitting place on the standing grounds. Fellow commoners soon join us at the theatre pit. The nobles, who pay an excess of four pennies, take their well-c ushioned seats in the three-level galleries surrounding the central yard. This comical play has attracted large numbers of spectators. The audience comprises members of different social classes; the lower class by the groundlings at the theatre pit, and the upper class by the nobles in the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s rooms. The LordÃ¢â¬â¢s rooms are behind the stage sheltered from the elements used in the play. I see the nobility class adorned in apparels that define their upper social class. Some of them mask their faces to hide their identity.... The amphitheatre has limited artificial lighting that is why most performances occur during the afternoons (Wilson &Alvin 16). I am finally at the grounds of the globe amphitheatre. As expected, the grounds are crowded with playgoers. There is an array of activities with merchants selling refreshments to the playgoers. Just by looking at the dress code of the playgoers I can almost tell that this play has attracted more groundlings than the previous one. I make my way to the stall selling hazelnuts and oranges, and I purchase some for my refreshment during the act. At the entrance, to the globe is a box where all playgoers deposit their entrance fee (Wilson &Alvin 17). I join the growing queue and after a few minutes am at the entrance. Upon placing my entrance fee in the box, I find my way to the theatre pit from where i will catch the play. On arrival at the pit, I discovered that I am amongst the first of to arrive in this section. I am fortunate to find sitting place on the stand ing grounds. Fellow commoners soon join us at the theatre pit (Wilson &Alvin 19). The nobles, who pay an excess of four pennies, take their well cushioned seats in the three level galleries surrounding the central yard. This comical play has attracted large numbers of spectators. The audience comprises members of different social classes; the lower class by the groundlings at the theatre pit, and the upper class by the nobles in the LordÃ¢â¬â¢s rooms. The LordÃ¢â¬â¢s rooms are behind the stage sheltered from the elements used in the play. I see the nobility class adorned in apparels that define their upper social class. Some of them mask their faces to hide their identity (Wilson &Alvin 19). Royalty is also represented in this
INDIVIDUAL 4 - Assignment Example ly with the source or directly with the customer as opposed to prior models of integration that focused almost exclusively on middle men and the roles of corporate meet and greets with the representative shareholders within the process. In much the same way, things similar to webinars have the capacity to drastically reshape the landscape of traditional sales channels. Although this may seem as a bit of a bold statement, the fact of the matter is that something like a webinar is exponentially cheaper than flying company representatives to a given location, catering a meal, and providing hotel accommodations for the shareholders while there (LaGarde & Whitehead 4). As a function of this factor, along with many others that have not been mentioned, the company, firm, or organization is able to integrate with a far higher level of potential clientele and at a far cheaper rate. This necessarily compounds the percentage likelihood that the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s endeavors will result in an overall increase in the bottom line; thereby benefiting the profitability and the business model of the firm in
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
The Harlem Renaissance and its Effect on African American Literature - Research Paper Example Its flame continues to burn today through the writings of contemporary African American authors. It has been argued that the Harlem Renaissance was short-lived and without much effect on literature black or white. However, to say this and limit its impact to a short period in the 1920s is shortsighted, as the early writing of such authors as W.E.B. DuBois clearly Ã¢â¬Å"manifested an awareness of the possibilities of a black aesthetic still in development today...It might even be that its effects were still being strongly felt, and thus that it was still figuratively alive, as late as 1970.Ã¢â¬ 2 The complex nature of the literary movement which we identify with the European Renaissance is very much a continuing project. Clearly the literature of the period had roots firmly planted in the African experience of writers, most of whom were descendents of slaves. While some sought to incorporate slavery into their work, others such as Alain Locke in his 1926 book, The New Negro: An Interpretation sought to promote black authors as legitimate representatives of an expanding African-American culture. Ã¢â¬Å"Central to the development of this racial awakening is a new internationalism which Locke describes as primarily an effort to recapture contact with the scattered peoples of African derivation.Ã¢â¬ 3 While African roots of blacks in this period played an intrinsic role in life and literary development of blacks, the Renaissance had a surprising reciprocal effect on African writers such as Peter Abrahams as noted in his comments upon reading DuBoisÃ¢â¬â¢s The Souls of Black Folks. Ã¢â¬Å"Du Bois...might have been writing about my land and people. The mood and feeling he described were native to me....[he] had given me a key to the understanding of the world. The Negro is not free.Ã¢â¬ 4 A note here should explain that DuBois in his writing chose to explore
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Molecular Identity - Essay Example The paper, instead, expounds upon the seven cation-coupled chloride cotransporters that have been described to date with specific emphasis placed on KCC2. The cotransporter KCC2 is evident in neuronal processes with specific preference for inhibitory ones where ergic action is relevant. KCC2 action precedes the ergic one as the KCC2 action brings down the intracellular chloride concentration to optimum levels to make it possible for ergic action. The phylogenetic, molecular and structural-functional details of the cotransporters have also been provided with special emphasis on KCC2. The CAD cell line, new in studies like this, has been introduced. The cell line exhibits catecholaminergic voltage dependent currents across membranes. Specific experimentation details have not been provided. A 5708 nucleotide region of the SLC12A5 gene that encodes the KCC2 cotransporter protein was probed with two 20 bp bits, left and right primer details in Appendix, with RT-PCR analysis. The resulting 206-nucleotide insert was perfectly amplified with one complement in the RT-PCR at temperatures varying from C - C. mRNA isolated from undifferentiated and differentiated murine CAD cells were used for the analysis. Electrophoresis of the RT-PCR products through 1.5% agarose gel revealed that most of the inserts had been perfectly complemented once during the RT-PCR producing evidence that the SLC12A5 gene is present in both murine differentiated and undifferentiated CAD cells and that these cells can, thus, later be used as culture media for further study of the KCC2 cotransporter expression and molecular identity. This is of great importance to such study as a suitable cell line has been hard to find so far and the easy manner in which the gene revealed itself in this study assures that this cell line can be a very convenient medium of further such studies Contents: 1. Introduction 8-9 1.1 CAD Cells 9-10 1.2 The Cotransporters (KCC1, 2, 3 & 4) 10-11 1.3 The Electroneutral Cotransporters 11-12 1.4 Cotransporters KCC1 11-15 1.4.1 Genetic Details 1.4.2 Structure 1.4.3 Function and Location 1.5 Cotransporter KCC3 15-16 1.5.1 Genetic Details 1.5.2 Location 1.6 Cotransporter KCC4 16-17 1.6.1 Molecular Genetics with Structural Identity 1.6.2 Function and Location 1.7 Cotransporters: General Features 17 1.8 Cotransporter KCC2 17-24 1.8.1 Phylogenetics 1.8.2 Structural and Locational Implications 1.8.3 Structural and Locational Implications 1.8.4 Specific Neuronal Location 1.8.5 Regulatory Action 1.8.6 Neuron-Specificity 1.8.7 Post- and PreNatal Concentration 1.8.8 Immunohistochemical Analysis 2. Methodology 2.1 RNA Isolation Technique 24 2.2 RNA Isolation Protocol 24-27 2.3 Estimation of RNA Yield 27-29 2.3.1 Vol. Isolated RNA in Differentiated Cells 2.3.2 Vol. Isolated RNA in Undifferentiated Cells 2.4 Primer Design 29 2.5 The PCR Analysis 29-30 2.6 Gel Electrophoresis Technique 30-31 3. Results 31-41 4. Discussion 42-43 5. Conclusion 43-44 References Bibliography List of Abbreviations:- Chloride anion - GABA A type - GABA S type - Potassium cation - Sodium
Monday, September 23, 2019
Penn State Child Abuse Scandal - Article Example They were aware of the sexual scandal but they took no action. Joe Paterno and Graham Spanier should have reported the matter according to the judgment. This article provides information on the modes of handling child abuse cases. For instance, the judgment passed on the article is a warning to other members of the public on the dangers of molesting teenagers. From the case, it is notable that whoever participates in abuse directly or indirectly is liable for punishment (Chappell 1). Criminal investigations should enhance justice regardless of the time it takes the jury to conduct an investigation. Cases of abuse are not new in Pennsylvania but the magnitude of the acts is surprising since they are escalating. This means that the juryÃ¢â¬â¢s investigation will guide future criminal investigations. The 10 molested teenagers received justice from the courts because of the criminal investigations. Moreover, the victims learned of their civil liberties as minors. The judgment helped in uplifting the moral standards of the people in Pennsylvania. This means that in the future people will avoid engaging in criminal acts, since the sentencing proved that the jury had devised the best approach to handling cases of child molestation. Severe punitive action taken upon the offenders signified that any form of abuse was a crime in the society. A detailed investigation prior to passing a judgment on a case ensured fairness in sentencing offenders of any form of abuse. Generally, child molestation can be prevented in future when authorities provide children with channels for expressing their views. This can be enhanced through implementing laws that discourage child abuse in the society. People should be empowered to report on cases that decay morals in the society (Chappell 1). Importantly, there has to be a collaboration of various parties for justice to be delivered in any criminal case. According to the case, failure to act
Sunday, September 22, 2019
The Farmers Almanac Essay Since the earliest memories in my grandparentÃ¢â¬â¢s farm in rural West Virginia, I have had a fascination for nature and our place in it. I remember with crystal clarity, the trip to the barn with my grandmother. She picked out a chicken, marched behind the barn and unceremoniously, without a warning, chopped off its head right before my eyes. As I screamed in terror watching the creature run headless and bleeding, my grandmother simply asked me to Ã¢â¬Å"hush and get some potatoes out of the basket from inside the barn. Ã¢â¬ As I moved toward the doorway, the chicken appeared to be running after me until it suddenly dropped dead in its last convulsion. That day on my grandparentÃ¢â¬â¢s farm was the first event of awareness I had of the harsh realities of life. I was three years old and inquisitive about everything on the farm. Although it was just a few miles from my own home, it felt as though one-stepped back in time when we visited, which we did frequently. With no running water, no indoor plumbing, no telephone and almost entire sustenance from the farm itself, it was a fantasyland. Although I had grown up in the 60Ã¢â¬â¢s and 70Ã¢â¬â¢s, it could have been the 30s due to our location in rural West Virginia. Life moved at a snailÃ¢â¬â¢s pace there. We were in greater touch with nature and the affinity with the earth was innate. Life was about learning to survive in a natural way. We never discussed politics, literature or history, at least not in a global sense. In my life, I have seen my father read just a single book The Farmers Almanac. As I was developing my own interest in literature, I recall asking him why The Almanac was the only book he read, and his response was simple and to the point, which was always his style. Ã¢â¬Å"Everything you need to know about everything important is in this book Kelly LeaÃ¢â¬ , he exclaimed with a gentle urgency. This has been a constant in my relationship with my father. Ã¢â¬Å"You think too much, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not that complicated. Ã¢â¬ Certainly, as I watch my children, I find myself thinking the same. I have learnt to utilize my hands and gain a sense of accomplishment from manual labor, from my father. Summers were spent building tree houses and working in the garden. Although I preferred working outdoors, my mother felt it was imperative that I learn to cook and develop my skills in home economics. My childhood could be taken right out of a Norman Rockwell painting. We actually had a swimming hole and caught lightning bugs in a Kerr canning jar with holes punched through the top with a nail. Impromptu kickball games in the parking lot of the local lumberyard were infamous for heated debates followed by slow walks home along the railroad tracks for supper. Some of the enlightening lessons of life I learnt as a child were from my father. There were several years on and off when we suffered financial hardship. It was during one of those years that our county had record rains and flooding. We had little money to spend for unavoidable home improvements to secure us from the elements. My parents were worried about the integrity of our roof. In the neighborhood, some homes were being constructed on property that had belonged to my grandparents. As they grew older, the taxes had absentmindedly not been paid. It was auctioned off for a bargain price without prior notification, while my father was gathering the funds to pay off the debt. The workers had hastily left the building supplies outside, covered by a mere sheet of construction plastic. Several of my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s acquaintances at work had Ã¢â¬Å"helped themselvesÃ¢â¬ to the supplies and encouraged my father to do the same. Trying to even the score, his fellow factory workers felt the developer was only getting what was coming to him. One evening we drove by the site and my father parked the family truck and stared at the sight. My mother was frightened. She thought he was contemplating stealing from there. My father looked at her and said, Ã¢â¬Å"You know better, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s not something I would do. I just wanted to see the land again before they chopped it up and got rid of our trees. Ã¢â¬ We got by without the supplies in a very leaky house but I remember feeling a sense of pride and comfort, with the knowledge that my father was a good and righteous man who would never compromise his values. Another defining moment transpired when I was a pre-teen. That incident has greatly affected my outlook on life, as I navigate my children through their natural world. I come from a family of hunters. All of the men as well as a few of the women, myself included, have had the experience of tracking wildlife on a blistery cold winter day. This is a ritual of passage for boys in particular. My brother had been hunting for several years and my father thought he had instilled in him a respect for the wildlife, the woods and his weapon. My brother was obsessed with hunting and shot a rabbit one day purely for the thrill of it. This was absolutely forbidden in our house. My father was a strong believer of living a needs-based life. He shot only what we would eat and this never included rabbits. After watching my brother skin the animal, my father boiled the carcass and forced my brother to consume every bite. To the best of my knowledge, my brother has never hunted for the sport of it, again. Whenever I hear a person protesting against hunting, I draw their attention to the ghastly practice of factory farming as opposed to hunting in the wilderness. My fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy of respect for nature as well as his intolerance of nature-abuse has remained a corner stone in my own life and hopefully, that of my children as well. Our neighbors were from Greece and Italy as well as Eastern Europe. They had come to work in the mines and factories as young men and women. My friends were often embarrassed by their cultural differences as compared to Americanized families. As a child I would listen to their grandparents speak their native tongue and delight in their sustained holiday traditions. I imagined what these distant countries would be like as I leafed through the family atlas that my mother had purchased at the grocery store with her philately books. As a young teen, I had begun asking questions regarding my family. An aunt and uncle had raised my mother and her siblings after they were abandoned by their father following their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. My mother has never recovered from the desertion. My father was raised by his violent, abusive, alcoholic parent. My victimized mother has never had a taste of alcohol out of fear of the addiction that claimed an older brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s life. My parents were teenagers when they had met. After a brief period of courtship, they had married. They had vowed to become each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s family and committed to not letting the ghosts of their past haunt their future. Unfortunately, this is not something one can absolutely control. My mother has suffered from depression for years, yet she refuses to seek help. She has spent so much of her life reflecting on her past. Both my parents had stopped growing as individuals when they found one another. Their knowledge is limited to what is necessary to sustain them as they have for decades. Fortunately, I knew my grandparents as different people and I adored my now sober, Ã¢â¬ËBorn AgainÃ¢â¬â¢ Christian grandfather. I Ã¢â¬Å"grew upÃ¢â¬ in the church, with him by my side. Mine was an idyllic childhood, completely ignorant of the fact that we were poor. I had everything I wanted and was gifted with a vivid imagination, a true blessing for a child of limited means. It was not until high school that life changed. I have found in my many years of self-discovery, that at the age of 17 my life had taken a major turn. The fallout of which, I am still recovering from. I was smart, pretty and outgoing, the Trifecta for small town teenage girls. With a blue-collar worker father and a housewife mother, I suddenly realized this too would be my fate. My college counselor told me that I really didnÃ¢â¬â¢t need to go to college; cute girls usually wasted their time in higher education because we normally just got married. It was at this time that I began an intimate relationship with a teacher and coach in my high school. After several months, it ended and I was sent into a downward spin that, I believe, had drastically changed my life. I now understood my motherÃ¢â¬â¢s abandonment issues. I nearly failed out of school, unable to cope with the pressure. I realize now that I was suffering from major depression for years without any sort of treatment. I spent my twenties trying to duplicate my relationship. I had outgrown my parents by now and felt the only way to continue living was to stop trying to duplicate what I envisioned to be my life story and start another one. I moved to Europe after being spotted by a modeling scout and started a career in the most glamorous and destructive environment a young woman could be exposed to in the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. Finally, I stopped thinking about my lover of five years past. Determined to change my attitude, I delved into the glamorous world of travel and adventure. I seldom stayed anywhere longer than a few months. My calendar was booked with exciting trips to some of the worlds most exotic and intoxicating locations. However, my world came to a crashing halt when I was brutally attacked on a first date by a man I had just met in Italy. My experience of the world had not prepared me for such an assault to my psyche. The physical wounds were quick to heal but I became fearful and uncomfortable in a world that I had previously relished. I now know that I had become clinically depressed following the attack. Although I continued to work and travel, my focus had changed. I wanted a family, my own family, very badly. Perhaps it is because I had been Ã¢â¬Å"groomedÃ¢â¬ and expected to follow that path for my entire life or perhaps I was trying to find love that would heal my wounds of abandonment and assault. Whatever may be the case, I met the man that would most influence my life, in 1987. A year later, we got married. Sometimes change is slow and passive, while at other times it is aggressive and shocking. My move to California and into the world of my new husband and his family was cold and judgmental. By then, I was expecting our first child. As previously mentioned, I was raised as a Protestant and although I had not attended services regularly, my faith was still very much a part of my identity. Soon I was expected to convert to Judaism, and raise our family in a culture which I had no experience or identification with. My husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s domineering nature and narcissism alienated my old friends and soon we were socializing only with those of the Jewish faith and in a certain economic bracket. My previous life was eclectic, colorful and inclusive. As the years passed, I felt my authentic self diminish and take on the role of a Jewish doctorÃ¢â¬â¢s wife from Beverly Hills. My soul felt suffocated and isolated. I had all of the material wealth and yet, I felt deprived. I compared my husband to a middle schooler wanting to sit at the popular table and willing to compromise principles and values for any glimpse into the world of the Hollywood elite. The people we called friends were ruthless and shallow and I isolated myself more as the years passed. Occasionally, there was a bankruptcy or divorce and the vultures would descend on the poor soul that was unlucky enough to ________. My husband would ridicule me saying I only had children so I would have someone to play with. Children are honest and open and show unconditional love. Something I was starving for from my husband. Few things are more delicate than society. The West Los Angeles elite were accustomed to disposing off people like a previous yearÃ¢â¬â¢s handbag and the choice was easy. To whom they shall be loyal depends directly on who they could most likely benefit from. My decision to finally divorce was excruciating because I was now the mother of three. I was really the only parent my children knew. My husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s work and social calendar spared him little time to be a hands-on parent. My older son, 11 years old at the time, suffers from learning disabilities and raising him as his mother, teacher, and therapist, among other things, required my full attention. I knew the children would suffer as a consequence of what my husband considered a betrayal. The truth is that, for the first time in over 12 years, I was not betraying myself. The price I have paid is high. Due to a pre-nuptial agreement, I was nearly bankrupt after paying the attorney fees and have watched my children traverse from a life of wealth and privilege with their father to a modest lifestyle when with me in a shared custody arrangement. His, my ex-husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s, vow to drive me to the streets had nearly materialized. A consistently litigious divorce had buried me underneath a wall of debt. Every person I knew through my husband has turned his/ her back on me, which has proved to be a gift. I have rekindled old relationships that have enriched and fortified me. Over the several years since my divorce, I have watched with pride and exuberance, as my children have met and conquered their own challenges. Divorce is ugly and very painful but I have forced myself and my children to not let it define their identity. I have gained tremendous perspective and wisdom as a result of my relationships and parenting three children, particularly my special-needs son. I have emotionally and physically returned to that place I loved as a child. To feed my curiosity of nature and travel, I spend my time diving, kayaking, travelingÃ¢â¬ ¦ and discovering new adventures with my new husband who shares these same traits.
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Leadership and performance Literature review An overview of the topic of leadership styles summarizes that the existing studies on how performance is affected by leadership style is separated into important phases. Early studies on leadership (frequently categorized as trait studies on leadership) concentrated on identifying the personality traits which characterized successful leaders (Argyris, 1955; Mahoney et al., 1960). According to them successful leaders are naturally born and those they have certain native characteristics which distinguish them from non-leaders (see Stodgill, 1948). However, there was significant difficulty in validating these characteristics led to widespread criticism of this trait approach, signaling the emergence of style and behavioral approaches to leadership (Stodgill, 1948). Style and behavioral theorists shifted the emphasis away from the characteristics of the leader to the behavior and style the leader adopted (Hemphill and Coons, 1957; Likert, 1961). The primry conclusion of these studies is that adoption of democratic or participative styles by leaders are more successful (see, for example, Bowsers and Seashore, 1966). In this sense, these early studies are focused on identifying the one best way of leading. Similarly to trait theories, the major weakness of style and behavioral theories is the ignorance of how important role situational factors play in determining the effectiveness of individual leaders (Mullins, 1999). It is this limitation that gives rise to the situational and contingency theories of leadership (for example, Fiedler, 1967; House, 1971; Vroom and Yetton, 1974) which shift the emphasis away from the one best way to lead to context-sensitive leadership. Although each study emphasizes the importance of different factors, the general tenet of the situational and contingency perspectives is that leadership effectiveness is dependent on the leaders diagnosis and understanding of situational factors, followed by the adoption of the appropriate style to deal with each circumstance. However, recent studies on leadership have contrasted transactional leadership with transformational. Transactional leaders are said to be instrumental and frequently focus on exchange relationship with their subordinates (Bass and Avolio, 1993). In contrast, transformational leaders are argued to be visionary and enthusiastic, with an inherent ability to motivate subordinates (Bycio et al., 1995; Howell and Avolio, 1993). Although the brief summary above indicates that research into leadership has gone through periods of skepticism, recent interest has focused on the importance of the leadership role to the success of organizations. Fiedler (1996), one of the most respected researchers on leadership, has provided a recent treatise on the importance of leadership by arguing that the effectiveness of a leader is a major determinant of the success or failure of a group, organization or even an entire country. Indeed, it has been argued that one way in which organizations have sought to cope with the increasing volatility and turbulence of the external environment is by training and developing leaders and equipping them with the skills to cope (Darcy and Kleiner, 1991; Hennessey, 1998; Saari et al., 1988). These claims are based on the assumption of a direct link between leadership and organizational performance. This assumption requires critical review. Widely celebrated cases of a direct leadership-performance link may be found in numerous anecdotal accounts of improvements of company performance attributed to changes in leadership (see, for example, Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992; Simms, 1997). However, empirical studies into the links between leadership and performance have been lacking. One notable exception is the detailed study of the impact of leadership on performance in the somewhat surprising context of Icelandic fishing ships. Thorlindsson (1987) suggests that variations in the performance of different fishing ships, under identical conditions, can be accounted for by the leadership skills of captains. Over a three-year period, Thorlindsson (1987) revealed that the leadership qualities of the ship captains accounted for 35 to 49 per cent of variation in the catch of different crews. Other studies which examine the links between leadership and performance coincide with the re-emergence of the one best way to lead debate. Of particular relevance is the resurgence of interest into charismatic leadership, which is frequently referred to as transformational leadership (Bass and Avolio, 1993). A number of researchers theorize that transformational leadership is linked to organizational performance (see, for example, Bycio et al., 1995; Howell and Avolio, 1993). Conceptually, it is argued that the visionary and inspirational skills of transformational leaders motivate followers to deliver superior performance (Nicholls, 1988; Quick, 1992). In summary, much of the above evidence presented as supporting the claim of a leadership-performance link is anecdotal and frequently over-concentrates on the transformational role of leaders in corporate successes (for example, Quick, 1992; Simms, 1997; Taffinder, 1995). It would appear that few studies have responded to the observation of Porter and Mckibbin (1988) that much of the research reported as supporting this claim is either inconclusive or empirically suspect. The limited or inconclusive character of research findings in this area suggests the need to investigate further the nature of the relationship between leadership and performance. LEADERSHIP TYPOLOGIES Several different categories of leadership paradigms have been suggested by various researchers. For example, Bass (1985) stated that there are four dimensions of transformational leadership, three dimensions of transactional leadership, and a non-leadership dimension of laissez-faire leadership (Bass, 1985). Avery (2004) suggested categorizing leadership into four leadership paradigms, while Goleman (1995) prefers six leadership paradigmsÃ Ã . Despite Basss (1985) model being acclaimed as making a major contribution to leadership, his theory has been criticized for various reasons (Yukl, 1999). One criticism is that his model overemphasizes the importance of one or two leadership paradigms (e.g. transactional and visionary), omitting the classical and organic paradigms Bass asserts that visionary (transformational) leaders are nearly always more effective than transactional leaders, but others (e.g. Judge and Piccolo, 2004; Wallace, 1997) dispute this. While this in itself does not invalidate the concept of visionary leadership, Bass attributes more to visionary (transformational) leadership than perhaps he should. As Avery (2004) suggested, both transactional and visionary leadership are valid forms of leadership, but visionary leadership may be applicable more broadly, including in situations where there are insufficient resources for the manager to rely on supplying external rewards (Judge and Piccolo, 2004), or where t he situation is complex and ambiguous, and relies strongly on follower knowledge and commitment. Avery suggests that there are other situations in which transactional leadership is the appropriate form of leadership, such as when followers are unwilling or unable to commit to the leaders vision. In contrast with Basss (1985) model, Averys (2004) paradigms provide a broad basis allowing for different forms of leadership that have evolved at different times and in different places. The paradigms are useful for showing that there is no single best way of thinking about leadership, rather that different kinds of leadership reflect social and historical roots. Averys paradigms allow leadership to depend on the context, respond to organizational needs and preferences, and involve many interdependent factors that can be manipulated (Bryman, 1992; Shamir and Howell, 1999; Yukl, 1999). LEADERSHIP PARADIGMS AND MEASURES Avery (2004) proposes 13 indices to differentiate between her four paradigms: classical, transactional, visionary, and organic. The nine indices included in this review are decision making, range of staffs power, power distance between leader and the staff, key player of the organization, source of staffs commitment, staffs responsibility, situation of management and leadership in the organization, situation of diversity in the organization and situation of control in the organizationÃ Ã . These nine criteria are considered more relevant for differentiating the four leadership paradigms than the other four criteria. Each paradigm is discussed in turn, including the distinguishing characteristics using the above nine criteria. Classical leadership is probably the oldest paradigm with its origins in antiquity, and is still used in contemporary organizations (Avery, 2004). This paradigm reflected the prevailing view in the business literature until the 1970s when the human relations movement led to more of a focus on followers and their environment. According to Avery (2004), classical leadership refers to dominance by a pre-eminent person or an elite group of people. This leadership can either be coercive or benevolent or a mixture of both. This happens because the elite individual or group commands or maneuvers other members to act towards a goal, which may or may not be explicitly stated. The other members of the society or organization typically adhere to the directives of the elite leader, do not openly question their directives, and execute orders largely out of fear of the consequences of not doing so, or out of respect for the leader, or both (Avery, 2004). Classical leadership has some limitations. The first occurs where the leader cannot command and control every action, particularly as situations become more complex and beyond the capacity of one person; or when additional commitment from followers is needed to get a job done, such as in reacting to changing circumstances; or when ideas about leadership change and followers no longer accept domination, or follower commitment starts to wane for other reasons. Another limitation is that this paradigm often relies on the idea of a great person, implying that only a select few are good enough to exercise initiative, and this belief can encourage followers to deskill themselves and idealize the leaders. Followers then seek and hold little power, leave the leader accountable for organizational outcomes, and make relatively little contribution to the organization (Avery, 2004). According to the nine distinguishing indicators, under the classical leadership paradigm leaders normally use an autocratic style for making decisions, invo lving followers in the decision making process never or very little; they do not empower followers. Followers have almost no power in the organization and as classical leaders tend to be highly directive, followers can be unskilled. The source of followers commitment comes from their fear of or respect for the leaders; the technical system becomes more regulating; the operations in the organization become more routine and predictable; and the organization is highly controlled by the leaders (Avery, 2004). A transaction or exchange process is the basis of the commonly employed transactional leadership paradigm (Evans and Dermer, 1974; House and Mitchell, 1974). The transactional leader recognizes subordinates needs and desires, and then clarifies how those needs and desires will be met in exchange for subordinates work. By clarifying what is required of subordinates and the consequences of their behaviors, transactional leaders are able to build confidence in subordinates to exert the necessary effort to achieve expected levels of performance. According to Judge and Piccolo (2004), three dimensions of transactional leadership are contingent reward, management by exception-active, and management by exception-passive. Contingent reward is the degree to which the leader sets up constructive transactions or exchanges with followers. The leader clarifies expectations and establishes the rewards for meeting these expectations. In general, management by exception is the degree to which the le ader takes corrective action on the basis of results of leader-follower transactions (Judge and Piccolo, 2004). As noted by Howell and Avolio (1993), the difference between management by exception-active and management by exception-passive lies in the timing of the leaders intervention. Active leaders monitor follower behavior, anticipate problems, and take corrective actions before the behavior creates serious difficulties. Passive leaders wait until the behavior has created problems before taking action (Howell and Avolio, 1993; Judge and Piccolo, 2004). According to Avery (2004, p.34), under the transactional leadership paradigm, leaders adopt a consultative style for making decisions. They engage in different degrees of consultation with individual followers, but the leaders remain the final decision-makers. Leaders do not very often empower followers, and followers have very low power in the organization apart from being able to withdraw from or contribute more of their labor. Compared with classical leadership, under transactional leadership the source of followers commitment comes from the rewards, agreements, and expectations negotiated with the leader rather than from their fear of, or respect for, the classical leader. The technical system becomes more regulating, the operations in the organization become more routine and predictable, and the organization is mostly highly controlled by the leaders. Avery (2004) argues that under transactional leadership, the followers knowledge base can be somewhat higher than under classical leadership. Compared with classical leaders, transactional leaders require staff somewhat more skilled on specific tasks. In the last three decades, visionary (transformational, charismatic) leadership has received increasing attention (Bass, 1985, 1998; Burns, 1978; Conger and Kanungo, 1987; House, 1977). It added a new dimension to organizational studies, namely the visionary aspect of leadership and the emotional involvement of employees within an organization. The basic notion is that a visionary leader can create an impression that he or she has high competence and a vision to achieve success. Subordinates are expected to respond with enthusiasm and commitment to the leadership objectives, and may be recruited because they share the vision. Bass (1985, 1998) developed a theory of visionary or transformational leadership whereby the leader inspires and activates subordinates to perform beyond normal expectations. According to Avery (2004), visionary leadership has limitations, even with the current literatures overwhelmingly positive view of it. Nadler and Tuschman (1990) pointed out that the unreal istic expectations followers often place on visionary leaders can create disappointment if things do not work out. Followers can become dependent on visionary leaders, believing that the leader has everything under control. Also, innovation can be inhibited if people become reluctant to disagree with a visionary leader. Avery (2004, p.39) distinguishes the visionary leadership paradigm from the other three paradigms as follows. First, leaders employ a collaborative style for making decisions. They share problems with their followers and seek consensus before the leaders make the final decision. Visionary leaders empower their followers, giving followers a much higher level of power in the organization than classical and transactional leadership. This is essential because the leader needs the followers input and commitment to realize his or her goals. Followers of visionary leadership need sufficient power to work autonomously towards a shared vision. The source of followers commitme nt comes from the influence of the leaders charisma and/or the shared vision, the technical system becomes still more complex, operations become more uncertain and unpredictable, and the organization is jointly controlled by the leaders and their followers. Regarding the followers knowledge base, visionary leadership requires skilled and knowledgeable workers who are attracted to, and share the leaders vision, and can contribute to realizing the vision. The fourth paradigm, organic leadership, is relatively new to organizational studies. Recently introduced by Drath (2001) and expanded by Avery (2004), organic leadership is likely to blur the formal distinction between leaders and followers. This paradigm relies on reciprocal actions, where team members work together in whatever roles of authority and power they may have, not based on position power (Hirschhorn, 1997; Raelin, 2003; Rothschild and Whitt, 1986). Employees become interacting partners in determining what makes sense, how to adapt to change, and what is a useful direction. Rather than relying on one leader, organic organizations are likely to have many leaders. Multiple leaders are valuable because as people cope with heterogeneous and dynamic environments, the knowledge and issues become too complicated for only a few leaders to understand (Avery, 2004). Organic leadership allows for people with different degrees of expertise on current issues to emerge and be accepted by the group as leaders. In addition, under organic leadership, there may be no formal leaders and the interaction of all organizational members can act as a form of leadership, held together by a shared vision, values, and a supporting culture. Under this paradigm where an organization has no formal leadership structure, an integrator role may emerge to actively link together the many parts of the organization (Avery, 2004). The emphasis is on emerging leadership rather than on people being appointed to leadership positions. However, Kanter (1989) argued that the downside of organic leadership that advocates autonomy, freedom, discretion and authorization may result in loss of control and greatly increased uncertainty. It is important to recognize that organic leadership is about generating a form of self-control and self-organization, where people have a clear sense of purpose and autonomy within a particular context (Meindl, 1998). This idealized organic leadership paradigm requi res differentiating from classical, transactional, and visionary leadership concepts by not relying on formal leaders. Furthermore, the enterprise has to trust in the capacity of its members to solve problems and make decisions in the interests of the organization. This idea clearly relies upon self-leading organizational members (Avery, 2004). According to Averys (2004, p. 39) distinguishing characteristics, under organic leadership an organization adopts a mutual agreement style for making decisions. Decisions need not be unanimous but can be based on consensus. The members have a high degree of power as a result of this shared leadership. Accountability and responsibility are shared as well. The source of followers commitment is based on the values and visions shared by all the members in the organization; a strong, shared culture; a technical system that is highly complex; operations in the organic organization become more self-organizing and unpredictable; formal control is pro vided by peer pressure and group dynamics, and a shared culture, vision, and values. Members are self-managing. Organic leadership seems particularly appropriate for professional and knowledge workers in dynamic, chaotic situations. This leadership paradigm relies on attracting and retaining highly trained and knowledgeable staff with self-controlling capabilities
Friday, September 20, 2019
Final English Paper Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Have you ever had a crime committed against you? In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society we are faced with crime all around us. There are crimes committed out of rage, revenge, jealousy, love, greed, etc; but there is another type of crime, or one could say act of violence, called hate crimes. Have you ever thought maybe that crime was committed against just because of your racial background, or religious beliefs? Throughout this countryÃ¢â¬â¢s history, hate crimes have taken place, either by known groups who hate and, most commonly, individuals that are inspired by hate. Not until recently have the people of this country ever wanted to pass a law that would punish the guilty to an even higher extent because the crime was committed out of hate. There are two sides to every issue. Whether or not the issue is valid or if it is an unrealistic concept created by the media or by the federal government, then, in my opinion, passing a law of this type is totally unrealistic. It is a lmost impossible to prove that a crime is committed out of a bias hate. I feel that a law that punishes hate crimes should not be passed. One main question that would be asked is, Ã¢â¬Å"Prove it?Ã¢â¬ Saying just that, in some cases destroys the effectiveness of the law, especially if and when the crime is committed when both parties share the same sexual, ethnic or religious back- ground. Now, I think that the money grubbing lawyers and the media would love this new law because, for one, the prosecuting lawyers would, in many cases, use it against the defendant, especially if it was a white vs. black case, or vice versa. The media would emphasize racial discrimination just because the general public, especially minorities, love controversies that may make them sympathetic. Also, I would think that this law would tie up more court time. If you think about it, there would be more cases popping up all over the place and also what ever case is going to be herd the word, hate, would probably be thrown in there as well which would drag the case out even longer. Maybe, not as much in criminal cases, but more so in civil s uites. Look at how Ã¢â¬Å"sue happyÃ¢â¬ the public is now. This law would only add to it. For example, people sue their neighbors for their pets going to the bathroom on their lawn. How ridiculous is that? Another example is a lady put here dog in the microwave t... ...t Ã¢â¬Å"rape with hateÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"murder with hate.Ã¢â¬ You should be punished for the actual crime, not your feelings that go along with it. Now even if this law were passed, would the police and courts enforce it? If they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t, what would be the point of passing it to begin with. I guess you could say that about any law but in my eyes I could see our Ã¢â¬Å"systemÃ¢â¬ twisting everything around. They would probably convict innocent people of Ã¢â¬Å"Hate crimesÃ¢â¬ and let the guilty people of Ã¢â¬Å"HateÃ¢â¬ go. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think it is fair to add another category to the crime list that could in the long run, ruin some peoples lives. I just think that it is wrong. I hope you see my point of view and agree with my opinion. Bibliography Jacobs, James. Hate Crimes. Challenging Intolerance 14 Nov. 2000 >http://sks.sirs.com/cgi-bin/hst-article-display?id=PA0212H- s57549sl&type=ART&artno=Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Grigera, Elena. Hate Crimes. Corrections Today Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 14 Nov. 2000 >http://sks.sirs.com/cgi-bin/hst-article-display?id=PA0212H-s57520sl&type=Art&artno= Walker, Samuel. Hate Speech. The History of an American Controversy Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã
Thursday, September 19, 2019
The Macropus giganteus, otherwise known as the Eastern Gray Kangaroo, the Giant Gray Kangaroo, or the Tasmanian Forester, is found in the eastern parts of Australia and in Tasmania. A management plan for this species can prove to be difficult, as one has to take in to account the fact that having high kangaroo populations may have undesirable influences on ecological processes in response to habitat destruction or other environmental change that may pose a threat to biological diversity or other environmental values. Nonetheless, in this plan, I shall try to cover any concerns in an effort to show how to further benefit the Macropus giganteus. My first concern is the kangarooÃ¢â¬â¢s habitat. Kangaroos can survive in very dense packs, called mobs, as has been shown by studies recording as many as 357 kangaroos per square kilometer living in a single nature reserve. However, they prefer to have more land available to them for grazing, as they feed primarily on shrubs and grasses that grow in the open fields. To address this, I would propose a solution that has proven effective in raising the populations in the past; deforestation. Kangaroos do not utilize the densely wooded areas in any way that would make them beneficial to keep. They have been known to live in the open woodlands, though. When heavily wooded areas are thinned or completely destroyed, this provides more grazing area for the kangaroo, allowing for a higher population carrying capacity. However, it must be stressed that some shade trees must be kept, as the kangaroos like to rest under them to cool off from the intense Australian sun. Another major concern is the killing of the kangaroo population by farmers. Farmers hunt the kangaroos because they feel that the kangaroo grazes on too much of its land, therefore being detrimental to the farm. A simple solution to this that benefits the kangaroo is to simply buy out the farms and convert the farmland into grasslands that the kangaroos can graze in freely. The farmer benefits from the buyout, and the kangaroo population can continue to increase. Another problem the Gray Kangaroo faces is being struck by cars. Roads often cut through the bush lands in Australian, often without any king of fence or barrier to keep wildlife from wandering onto the highway and being killed. Thousands of kangaroos are killed each year because of this. One solution is to fence off the highways that cut through kangaroo habitat.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) was created to test college-bound students on their mathematical and verbal aptitudes and to thus predict their ability to succeed academically in college. In the United States, the SAT is the oldest and most widely used college entrance test. It was first administered in June 1926 to only 8,040 high school students and is now taken by over 2 million students. Over the years, the SAT has become one of the most important tests of a teenager's life for admission to college. The test is administered seven times a year at thousands of testing centers throughout the United States. Most colleges consider the SAT to be a reliable predictor of academic success in college and is therefore used as a critical tool when selecting applicants. However, the question that has to be confronted is whether the test is fair to all students. Educators have been questioning the validity of the SAT to determine college admission or to predict academic success because the test appears to be discriminatory and biased against women, minorities, and the poor (low income). The Educational Testing Service (ETS), which produces and administers the test, claims that the SAT in its current form "is an impartial and objective measure of student ability" (Owen 272). However, critics of the SAT argue "that tests like the SAT measure little more than the absorption of white upper-middle-class culture and penalize the economically disadvantaged" (Owen 10). The statistical reality of SAT scores is that: students who take coaching/prep courses do better than those who are not coached; men do better than women; whites do better than blacks; and the rich do better than the poor. Based upon my research, the SAT appears to be discriminatory against women, minorities, and the poor, and a test this flawed should not be used as a key factor in c ollege admission or as a predictor of academic success. In March 2005, a "new and improved" SAT will be introduced to theoretically eliminate any questions deemed biased and discriminatory. This revised SAT would appear to be a concession to the out-cry of criticism against the current test. However, since the new test will emphasize achievement rather than aptitude, it will once again favor the student who can afford coaching and attends a high school with a superior curriculum, i.e. the rich and white. An "equal opportunity" college entrance examination is virtually impossible because someone will always have/obtain an advantage.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Procedure 1. Before beginning, set up a data table similar to the Data Table: Qualitative Anion Tests in the Lab Report Assistant section. 2. Each anion tested will require the use of three separate test tubes. Complete all of the following tests on one solution, record your observations, and then thoroughly clean and dry the test tubes before beginning tests on the next solution. 3. After consecutively testing the identified anions, perform the same tests on the unknown solution to conclusively determine its identity. 4. First test tube: a. Put 8 drops of the anion to be tested in a clean small test tube. b. Add 8 drops of hydrochloric acid to the anion solution. Note the appearance of the solution plus any evolution of gas and odors of gas. 5. Second test tube: a. Put 8 drops of the anion solution in a second test tube. b. Add 3 drops of silver nitrate solution. c. Note the colors of any precipitates formed. d. Write a net ionic equation for any reaction that produces a precipitate. e. Acidify the test tube by adding a few drops of nitric acid. f. Mix well and note if the precipitate dissolves or remains. 6. Third test tube: Per the following, perform the appropriate confirmation test for this anion. NOTE: Where the following instructions call for Ã¢â¬Å"gently warmingÃ¢â¬ a chemical place the test tube containing the chemical into a 50-mL beaker of hot tap water for a few minutes. Ã¢â" Bromide (Br-) and Iodide (I-): (First make fresh chlorine water by combining in a graduated cylinder approximately 1ml of bleach, 5ml of tap water, and 6 drops of HCl; stir or shake. Then label an empty pipet and suck up this chlorine solution for use here.)To 10 drops of the test solution add 2 to 3 drops of the organic reagent (hexanes or similar) and several drops of chlorine water. Shake well and allow the lower layer to settle out. Note the color in the organic reagent layer. A brown or gold color indicates bromine and a reddish-violet or pink color indicates iodine. Carbonate(CO32-): Acidify 20 drops of the solution with 2 drops of HCl. Carbonates produce an odorless gas (CO2) which should produce a precipitate when bubbled through a saturated calcium hydroxide solution. For the purpose of this experiment you may distinguish this gas from hydrogen sulfide by its lack of odor (See sulfide test, S2-). Ã¢â" Chloride (Cl-): To 6 drops of the test solution add 2 drops of AgN03, silver nitrate solution. A white precipitate that dissolves readily when the solution is made definitely basic with aqueous ammonium indicates the presence of the chloride ion. Ã¢â" Phosphate(PO43-): Acidify 10 drops of the test solution with 1 drop of HNO3, nitric acid, and add 7 drops of ammonium molybdate solution (shake it well before using). Wait 30 seconds. The phosphate should produce a yellow precipitate. Gentle warming may be necessary to obtain the precipitate. Ã¢â" Sulfate (SO4 2-): To 10 drops of the test solution add 5 drops of the BaCl2, barium chloride solution. A white precipitate that is insoluble in HCl indicates the presence of sulfate. Ã¢â" Sulfide (S2-):Acidify 10 drops of the test solution with HCl. The odor of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) should be apparent (it smells like rotten eggs!). Warm the solution moderately and then hold a small piece of moist lead acetate paper at the mouth of the test tube. If the paper turns black (caused by PbS) this indicates the presence of sulfide. Thoroughly clean and dry the test tubes before beginning tests on the next solution. Cleanup: Tightly cap the bottle of silver nitrate solution and put it in the Experiment 11 bag so it will be easy to find when you need it for the next experiment. Flush any other remaining solutions down the drain with lots of water. Properly rinse all equipment used, then dry and store for future use. Data and Observation Data Table: Qualitative Anion Tests Name Test tube 1 w/HCI Test tube 2 w/AgNO3 w/HNO3 Test tube 3 Confirmation Bromide Gas and no smell Precipitate, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t dissolve DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t dissolve Iodine separated from Bromide Carbonate Gas and no smell Cloudy Precipitate Clear gas present Clear and no smell Chloride Gas and no smell, No precipitate Cloudy precipitate present DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t dissolve Dissolve with precipitate present Iodine Gas and no smell Precipitate, didnÃ¢â¬â¢t dissolve DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t dissolve Iodine separated from Bromide Phosphate Gas and no smell Cloudy and yellow precipitate present Dissolve Yellow with precipitate present Sulfate Gas and no smell Precipitate present DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t dissolve White precipitate present Sulfide Gas and clear Precipitate present DidnÃ¢â¬â¢t dissolve Had an odor with precipitate present. Turned Black Unknown No change No change White precipitate present Sulfate didnÃ¢â¬â¢t dissolve Questions: Group 1: Anions that WILL NOTPRECIPITATE in the presence of silver nitrate. Sulfate Group 2: Anions that WILL PRECIPITATE in the presence of silver nitrate and the resulting precipitates WILL DISSOLVE upon acidification with nitric acid. Carbonate, Phosphate Group 3: Anions that WILL PRECIPITATE in the presence of silver nitrate and the resulting precipitates WILL NOT DISSOLVE upon acidification with nitric acid. Bromide, Chloride, Iodide, Sulfide A. Write a net ionic equation for any reaction that produces a precipitate. Sodium Bromide: Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) ( AgBr(s) Sodium Carbonate: 2Ag+(aq) + CO32-(aq) ( Ag2CO3(s) Sodium Chloride: Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ( AgCl(s) Sodium Iodide: Ag+(aq) + I-(aq) ( AgI(s) Sodium Phosphate: Ag+(aq) + PO4-(aq) ( Ag3PO4(s) Sodium Sulfide: 2Ag+(aq) & S-2(aq) ( Ag2S(s) B. Identify the anions that produce gas upon addition of HCl. Carbonate, Sulfide C. Identify the anions that do not precipitate with silver nitrate. Sulfate D. Identify the anions that react with silver nitrate to form precipitates that dissolve when acidified with nitric acid. Carbonate, Phosphate E. Identify the anions that react with silver nitrate to form precipitates that do not dissolve when acidified with nitric acid. Bromide, Chloride, Iodide, Sulfide F. What simple test (other than a specific confirmation test) would distinguish between CO3 2-and NO- ? Add Barium Chloride. If there is CO32- a white precipitate of BaCO3 will appear. Conclusions: Through this experiment, I learned how to identify commonly occurring anions. I also learned how to use the characteristics of their reactions with HCl and AgNO3 to identify an unknown solution. Using my observations with the different anion mixtures, I was able to identify the Unknown anion to be Sodium Sulfate. I figured this out because when HCl was added, no gas was formed. This ruled out Sodium Carbonate and Sodium Sulfide. The gas I observed for the Sodium Carbonate & Sulfide was very subtle. Even then I was not 100% sure. This is where I think there could have been room for error because I did not read the results correctly, therefore possibly interferingÃ with my unknown. However, the unknown did not form a precipitate and there was only one other anion that did this.
Monday, September 16, 2019
Case study Computer Science Departmental Library By MERCY OKEOWO 08710007 FOR THE Award of Ordinary National Diploma In COMPUTER SCIENCE Of MOSHOOD ABIOLA POLYTECHNIC Abstracts Library management system is an aspect or branch of information management system that keeps the records of both the library users, books in the library and the activities that is going on in the library, activities like borrowing books and returning books. Information management in general is the collection and management of information from one or more source and distribution of the information to one or more audience.This sometimes involves those who a stake in or right to that information. Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing, and delivery of information. In short information management entails organizing retrieving acquiring and maintaining information. It is closely related to and overlapping with the practice of data management. A good library manager must be a ble to take of the following activities in the library; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep records of books in the library. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep records of the library user. Keep track of books borrowed by any library user. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep record of time a library user borrowed and return books. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do the following analysis after each day for decision making purpose ? Analysis of book borrowed by per day. ?Analysis of the type of book people requested for per day. ? Analysis of the author people read his/her book most per day. All the above analysis is needed due to the following reasons. ? To get the type of books people read most in the library to avoid congestion. To get the type of books from a particular author which people read most in the library so as to avoid congestion. INTRODUCTION Background to the study Information for the modern institution is a resource parallel in importance to land, and other factors of production. It is very vital and a prices less resources. For centuries, man has tried to c ollate, store, process and retrieve information and most importantly analysis of the data before distribute or communicate it by the available fast test mean.It follows, therefore that man has tried various ways and methods to record analyse and disseminate information in his attempts to proffer solution to low security of data, effective data communication, effective data analysis and lot more. Information therefore is data that have been processed into meaningful and usable form, and it contains knowledge that reduces uncertainly in particular situation and it is mostly useful in decision making. But unfortunately most people in this country do not have effective means of information management; the departmental library is a typical example of such.About The Old System Library is a place where books are kept are kept for student lecturers to come and read or borrow to their various home for reading, for the security of these books record of library user are needed to kept likewise record of available books in library are also needed to kept. The most important part of it is that the library attendant must keep record of who borrows and type of book some one borrowed along with the time in order to keep track of the book in library.For the improvement of library or updating of the library book, statistic or read and unread books are needed top kept so as to know which book to get more into the library, also to know which author the students or lecturer like to read their books and lot more. All the above activities are done manually; that is it involves someone writing down the name of the library users and list of books in the library, even to the extents of counting the number a book is read which can be in inaccurate which also exposes the book to risk of missing.The most disgusting thing is searching through the shelf for books to read which is done by manual library catalogue, this alone can discourage student from reading books in library where we have large number of books. Problem Statement and Motivation What motivated me to embark on this project is due to the following problem that is faced by the Computer Science Department Library. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Searching through the library shelf for books to read will be boring and may not be encouraging. Searching through the record book to validate a library user may also be boring for the library keeper. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keeping tracks of borrowed books with the library user that borrowed it may not accurate which can lead to loss of books in the library. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conducting the analysis of books people read per day, analysis of author people read his/books per day may be difficult and inaccurate which affect the decision making of the library managers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Backing up of files or records may be very difficult because it can lead to repetitive task. Objective of the ResearchThe main objective of this research is to develop software (library Management Software) for the computer science department l ibrary which will be capable of managing the student information (library users) and the books in the library. The research is aimed at achieving the following objectives; Ã¢â¬ ¢ To keep record of register student (library users). Ã¢â¬ ¢ To improve the consistency of the information in the library. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To improve the way analysis of books are conducted. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To improve the security of information in the library. METHODOLOGY Information gatheringI gathered all the information above information by conducting an interview for the student (library user) and the library keeper. I chose to use java for developing the interfaces of the software and the database connectivity due to the following reasons; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Java is platform independent programming language that can run on any type of operating system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Java is network programming language that can access over a network. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Java is fast in execution. I have chose Microsoft Access Database for the database because of it flexibility and it easy access. Library Management System Case study Computer Science Departmental Library By MERCY OKEOWO 08710007 FOR THE Award of Ordinary National Diploma In COMPUTER SCIENCE Of MOSHOOD ABIOLA POLYTECHNIC Abstracts Library management system is an aspect or branch of information management system that keeps the records of both the library users, books in the library and the activities that is going on in the library, activities like borrowing books and returning books. Information management in general is the collection and management of information from one or more source and distribution of the information to one or more audience.This sometimes involves those who a stake in or right to that information. Management means the organization of and control over the structure, processing, and delivery of information. In short information management entails organizing retrieving acquiring and maintaining information. It is closely related to and overlapping with the practice of data management. A good library manager must be a ble to take of the following activities in the library; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep records of books in the library. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep records of the library user. Keep track of books borrowed by any library user. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keep record of time a library user borrowed and return books. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do the following analysis after each day for decision making purpose ? Analysis of book borrowed by per day. ?Analysis of the type of book people requested for per day. ? Analysis of the author people read his/her book most per day. All the above analysis is needed due to the following reasons. ? To get the type of books people read most in the library to avoid congestion. To get the type of books from a particular author which people read most in the library so as to avoid congestion. INTRODUCTION Background to the study Information for the modern institution is a resource parallel in importance to land, and other factors of production. It is very vital and a prices less resources. For centuries, man has tried to c ollate, store, process and retrieve information and most importantly analysis of the data before distribute or communicate it by the available fast test mean.It follows, therefore that man has tried various ways and methods to record analyse and disseminate information in his attempts to proffer solution to low security of data, effective data communication, effective data analysis and lot more. Information therefore is data that have been processed into meaningful and usable form, and it contains knowledge that reduces uncertainly in particular situation and it is mostly useful in decision making. But unfortunately most people in this country do not have effective means of information management; the departmental library is a typical example of such.About The Old System Library is a place where books are kept are kept for student lecturers to come and read or borrow to their various home for reading, for the security of these books record of library user are needed to kept likewise record of available books in library are also needed to kept. The most important part of it is that the library attendant must keep record of who borrows and type of book some one borrowed along with the time in order to keep track of the book in library.For the improvement of library or updating of the library book, statistic or read and unread books are needed top kept so as to know which book to get more into the library, also to know which author the students or lecturer like to read their books and lot more. All the above activities are done manually; that is it involves someone writing down the name of the library users and list of books in the library, even to the extents of counting the number a book is read which can be in inaccurate which also exposes the book to risk of missing.The most disgusting thing is searching through the shelf for books to read which is done by manual library catalogue, this alone can discourage student from reading books in library where we have large number of books. Problem Statement and Motivation What motivated me to embark on this project is due to the following problem that is faced by the Computer Science Department Library. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Searching through the library shelf for books to read will be boring and may not be encouraging. Searching through the record book to validate a library user may also be boring for the library keeper. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Keeping tracks of borrowed books with the library user that borrowed it may not accurate which can lead to loss of books in the library. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Conducting the analysis of books people read per day, analysis of author people read his/books per day may be difficult and inaccurate which affect the decision making of the library managers. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Backing up of files or records may be very difficult because it can lead to repetitive task. Objective of the ResearchThe main objective of this research is to develop software (library Management Software) for the computer science department l ibrary which will be capable of managing the student information (library users) and the books in the library. The research is aimed at achieving the following objectives; Ã¢â¬ ¢ To keep record of register student (library users). Ã¢â¬ ¢ To improve the consistency of the information in the library. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To improve the way analysis of books are conducted. Ã¢â¬ ¢ To improve the security of information in the library. METHODOLOGY Information gatheringI gathered all the information above information by conducting an interview for the student (library user) and the library keeper. I chose to use java for developing the interfaces of the software and the database connectivity due to the following reasons; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Java is platform independent programming language that can run on any type of operating system. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Java is network programming language that can access over a network. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Java is fast in execution. I have chose Microsoft Access Database for the database because of it flexibility and it easy access.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
This document focuses on the Chattanooga Ice Cream Division case study developed by Carl Sloane. Leadership opportunities and action are defined based on the characters in the case study. Dysfunction is evaluated both from a team aspect and from the leadership role. Specific development activities are identified to help the individuals develop emotional intelligence. Finally, recommendations will be made to guide the team forward. Background Chattanooga Ice Cream is a division of Chattanooga Food Corporation which is a family-controlled business founded in 1936 (Sloane, 1997). The ice cream division is one of the largest regional maufacturers of ice cream in the United States. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s primary focus is mid-priced basic ice cream products. The ice cream division has been experiencing flat sales and a declining profitability over the past four years (Sloane, 1997). Competitors had shown success in recent years with premium and super-premium brands with Ã¢â¬Å"mix-inÃ¢â¬ ice cream flavors. The Chattanooga Food Corporation focused on leadership changes in an attempt to improve the ice cream divisionÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. In 1993, Charles Moore was promoted to head the division. The ice cream division also hired a new vice president of marketing to replace a 30 year veteran. Stephanie Krane was assigned to the division to upgrade the information systems and control function. In 1995, the original manufacturing plant in Chattanooga was closed to control costs. The management changes resulted in a disruption to the top level management team. Three of the seven members of the management team were new to their positions. Additionally, CharlesÃ¢â¬â¢ leadership style was very different than his predecessor. The previous general manager had been with the business for many years and had numerous networks to gather information. He made important decisions alone and rarely felt the need to consult his management team. The Dysfunction The ice cream division sales continued to fall, and the company recently lost a significant customer to Sealtest. The announcement of this loss resulted in open criticism from virtually all team members. In the past, when issues arose and blaming between departments occurred Moore would not respond in hopes that the managers would quit complaining about each other. Moore believes in the value of group based decisions and liked to bring people together formally to share information, consult on decisions, and forge consensus (Sloane, 1997). Moore would rank high in collaboration using the Thomas Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI). The TKI (2007) states that the Ã¢â¬Å"overuse of collaboration and consensual decision making sometimes represents a desire to minimize risk Ã¢â¬â by diffusing responsibility for a decision or by postponing action. The assessment goes on to state that a person with a high collaboration score may miss some cues that would indicate the presence of defensiveness, impatience, competitiveness, or conflicting interests. Moore appears to also favor the avoiding mode when conflict arises. Avoiders tend to hope that conflict goes away on its own. Moore has been avoiding conflict by not addressing the conflict when it arose. The DiSC Assessment is a tool to help an individual understand themselves and others. Based on the case study by Sloane (1997) Moore appears to be an S, which stands for steadiness. The S style prefers to work at a methodical pace and to focus on their tasks without interruption. They seek a calm, orderly structure where collaboration and group effort are valued (DiSC, 2008). People that have an S profile are demotivated in competitive environments, do not like being rushed into quick decisions, or having to be confrontational. These three traits of Charlie Moore have resulted in a lack of leadership through conflict and the inability to make a decision without collaboration time. As a leader, Moore has not displayed the four key principles to success according to Jack Welch in Winning (2005). These basic principles are mission and vision, candor, differentiation, and voice and dignity. First, Moore has not created a vision for the Ice Cream Division, and the division appears to be relatively isolated from the overall mission of the Chattanooga Food Corporation. According to Welch (2007), the mission tells where you are going and the values describe the behaviors that will get you there. Charlie Moore has been the General Manager for four years, yet it does not appear that he has determined how the Ice Cream Division can win in their current market, nor has he defined what winning means. The second principle is candor. Candor facilitates strong discussion. In the case of the Ice Cream Division team, it appears the team was displaying a lack of candor by not sharing critical information, or generating ideas which could result in a real debate. Part of candor is feedback. As a leader, it is critical to give feedback so each team member understands exactly what has to be done for improvement and where they stand in the organization (Welch, 2005). There are three main benefits of candor according to Welch (2005). First, candor gets people into the conversation. More ideas are generated and discussed, and all team members have the opportunity to contribute to generate the best ideas. Candor also increases speed since getting people into the conversation results in immediate debate and discussion which allows a well informed decision to be made. Speed is the second benefit of candor. Finally, candor cuts costs. Openly sharing information, positive and negative, results in a team that can quickly respond to issues that arise. WelchÃ¢â¬â¢s (2005) third principle focuses on differentiation. Differentiation is a way to manage people and business. The business side of differentiation focuses on how to beat the competition through strategy. The people portion requires a leader to identify the top 20 percent, middle 70 percent, and the bottom 10 percent of performers. The next step is to act on this evaluation. In the case of the Chattanooga Ice Cream Division, the bottom 10 percent would not know where they ranked or why. This problem ties back into candor. Without candid conversations regarding goals and performance, an employee has a reduced chance of success. Additionally, the lack of candid conversations does not give the individual an opportunity to improve their performance. Further, in this case study, goals for the team are not clear which does not enable people to be successful. The fourth principle is voice and dignity. Charles Moore has a management team that does have a voice, although they use the opportunity to lay blame and defend themselves rather than focus on solutions. Voice and dignity goes beyond the management team. According to Welch in Winning (2005), most people do not say anything because they feel they canÃ¢â¬â¢t and they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t been asked. Charles needs to understand the business from every rank and perspective as the company leader. He needs to get into the Ã¢â¬Å"trenchesÃ¢â¬ . The only way to accomplish this is by enabling open, candid conversations throughout the organization. Developing a Team Developing a team takes time. This team has been together for four or more years with little to no achievement. The stage of introductions is past, but in reference to the Tuckman model (Tocci, JWI510, W6) the team is in the Ã¢â¬Å"formingÃ¢â¬ stages. Key attributes of this stage are an unclear mission and values, lack of trust, and lack of commitment. To start an open discussion regarding team dynamics each team member will complete a DiSC assessment and a 360 review. The 360 feedback will include their direct reports, people from within their functional area, people outside of their functional area, and every member of the leadership team. After the results have been compiled a coach will be assigned to each team member to review the results and to develop personal action plans. After these one-on-one sessions, Charlie should bring the team together to share the results of their DiSC assessment. The purpose of the session is to gain a better understanding of each team member in terms of how they prefer to work and why. Once the DiSC assessment is reviewed, each person will be asked to share the 2-3 personal development goals generated from their time with the coach. As the leader, Charles will start first and show his vulnerability. Sharing goals can help team members be accountable to each other. This enables informal peer to peer coaching to help everyone stay committed to the team. The DiSC assessment and the 360 degree feedback contribute to emotional ntelligence. Goleman (2000) defines emotional intelligence as the ability to manage ourselves and our relationships effectively. Both of these assessments enable each team member to become more self-aware of their emotions and the impact on their co-workers. Additionally, these tools give an accurate self-assessment of each personÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and limitations. Once each team member understands how they are perceived and their personal DiSC style in relation to others they can begin to make focused improvements on their overall emotional intelligence. Goleman (2000) found that leaders with strengths in a critical mass of six or more emotional intelligence competencies were more effective than peers that did not have similar strengths. These exercises focus on the bottom of LencioniÃ¢â¬â¢s (2002) pyramid, Ã¢â¬Å"Absence of TrustÃ¢â¬ . The team should encourage each other to be vulnerable and in turn, support the team members that do show vulnerability. Specific Recommendations for the Team Once the team has completed the DiSC and 360 degree feedback tools, the coaching, and the group sharing they are ready to transition their focus to the ability to run a successful business. At this point, the Ice Cream Division does not have a clear mission or vision. To start this process, the team will start a charter. First, the team must establish an overall mission by understanding the overarching mission of the company. In short, at the executive level, what does the team stand for? Focusing on mission development instead of solving the problem of lost business will allow the team to understand what actions they need to take to align the problem solution to the business strategy. According to Welch (2005) a mission answers the question: How do we intend to win in this business? Using guidance from Winning (Welch, 2005), the executive team may develop a mission statement that looks like this: The mission of the Chattanooga Ice Cream Division is to become the market leader in Ice cream sales due to our focus on exceptional taste, unique flavors, and our commitment to customers. Once the mission is established the team will begin to generate a charter. This charter will focus on specific activities required to achieve the mission and vision of the organization.