Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Astronomy Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Astronomy - Essay Example Its birth pangs began some 4.6 billion years ago as rock and ice particles swirling around the young sun collided and merged, snowballing to produce ever larger planetary building blocks. In violent pileups, they smashed together to create planets, including the infant Earth. In the turmoil, another body, as big as Mars, struck our planet with the energy of trillions of atomic bombs, enough to melt it all the way through. Most of the impactor was swallowed up in the bottomless magma ocean it created. But the collision also flung a small world's worth of vaporized rock into orbit. Debris quickly gathered itself into a ball, and since then Earth history has unfolded beneath the blank stare of the moon. After the moon's fiery birth, the Earth's surface cooled. Even so, our planet remained an alien world for the next 700 million years; scientists call this time the Hadean, after the Greek underworld. Rafts of solid rock drifted in the magma like dark ice floes. Gases hissed from the cooling rock-carbon dioxide, nitrogen, water vapor, and others-enveloping the planet in a scalding atmosphere devoid of oxygen. As the temperature dropped further, the steam condensed into rain that fell in primordial monsoons and filled the ocean basins. These first oceans may have been short-lived. Space rubble left over from the birth of the planets-chunks of rock tens to hundreds of miles across-bombarded Earth throughout the Hadean. The greatest impacts might have boiled the oceans away, forcing the process of cooling and condensation to begin again. By 3.8 billion years ago the impacts relented. Liquid water could persist. About that time, perhaps in the oceans, lifeless chemical reactions crossed a threshold, producing molecules complex enough to reproduce themselves and evolve toward greater complexity. Life was on a road that led, as early as 3.5 billion years ago, to single-celled, blue-green cyanobacteria that flourished in the sunlit parts of the oceans. By the trillions, these microscopic organisms transformed the planet. They captured the energy of the sun to make food, releasing oxygen as a waste product. Little by little they turned the atmosphere into breathable air, opening the way to the diversity of life that followed. Those days are long gone, but the processes that turned our planet from a hell to a habitable world are still on view today, as the images on these pages show. Primordial heat left over from the planet's formation still bursts out in volcanic eruptions, spilling lava that exudes gases like the young, cooling Earth. In the planet's harshest environments today, cyanobacteria reign as they have for billions of years. And each time a plant gains a toehold on newly cooled lava, the victory of life over lifeless rock-won so long ago on the young Earth-is affirmed again. Subscribe to National Geographic magazine. The Earth began as a bleak surrounding where hot and fiery rocks and poisonous fumes existed. This is what the article from National Geographic Magazine, titled Earth in the Beginning written by Tom Appenzeller, illustrates. The article describes the early Earth

Monday, October 28, 2019

Terrorism In Pakistan Essay Example for Free

Terrorism In Pakistan Essay Pakistan has been facing major and destructive phenomenon due to the terrorist. It had been common since 1999, like bomb blast and suicides attacks. This has great impact on our social and moral life. Many lives are gone away due to the terrorism in Pakistan, This is not only in Pakistan but also spread in all over the countries. Terrorism has a destructive impact on the life of human beings. No doubt our country has been progressed by making power full nuclear weapons. And Pakistan also has a nuclear power like the other countries, but in our countries some agents are making their wrong use by bomb blasting. They target the Holy places and historical building without cares of anyone life. And many human beings loss their life in this type of incidents like bomb blasting. It was commonly found in Pakistan during the late 1999. Every channel and newspaper have the same and common news about bomb blasting and suicide attacks. Terrorism in Pakistan just destroy the economy in Pakistan. Accident of Lal Masjid took place 1999 militants and religious flower lost in this incident. There were many other incidents during last years just because of the terrorist. Suicide attacks are also found in many cities. Nobody cares about his life and ready for death due to the illiteracy in our country. Mostly parents don’t prefer their children to give them education from the starting years, the result is that they lost their interest in studying and never like to go to school for getting education. This spread unemployment among the nation, and when they have not any jobs for the satisfaction and fulfillment of their life they choose the wrong way through which they can earn well. Therefore they do not afraid by taking any risk, even some are going to be ready for suicidal attacks the reason is just money, moreover they have lost their interest to live a perfect and normal life. In the last there are some suggestion about the terrorist. It should be completely finished. Our nation and citizen should be given knowledge about the importance of life. People who are living in the Pakistan should be given maximum chances to get the employment, and most important education should be must and equal for every one.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Brennaghs Hamlet Essay -- essays research papers

Often when a movie is adapted from a play, there are several aspects which are adjusted or completely lost. This often depends on the directors point of view as well as the casting director. In Kenneth Branagh’s movie “Hamlet'; only a small number of aspects were lost from the movement of the play to the movie. The movie was ‘word for word’ of the play with the exception of a few moved silique. Therefore, the plot or order did not change. The scene where Hamlet meets his father, 1.5, was very well done; conjuring great emotions of fear and suspense. In addition, the final scene was adequately performed evoking anxiety and thrill for the viewer. The ghost of Hamlet was very disappointing at first but later developed into and excellent portrayal. The characters who played Marcellus, the first Grave digger and Oris, Jack Lemmon, Billy Crystal, and Robin Williams respectively, were fairly poor selections by the casting director. They lacked a certain Shakespearian character as famous comedians. It could not be forgotten making the choices dispiriting.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  “You tremble and look pale'; (1.1.53). The first viewing of the ghost causes the guards great fear. They are unsure if what they have seen is “something more than just fantasy'; (1.1.54). It appears to be the body of the late King Hamlet but perhaps it could be their boggled minds. When the ghost enter a second time, they confirm that it was in fact the ghost of Hamlet. This terrifies and mystifies Bernard, Heratio, and Marcellus. The reader feels all of the emotions along with these characters, as it is expressed through the dialogue.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In Act 1 Scene 4 and 5, when Hamlet meets and speaks with the ghost of his father, the fear increases. You begin reading faster and feel like you are running after the spirit with Hamlet. The actual conversation between the two is very fast and flows very nicely. Once agin making the scene more intense. Throughout the scene the dramatic effects are heighten by the ghost’s long lamented speeches to his son. The entire scene is one of climactic drama.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In the movie, the ghost first appears to be a statue. He brings about no feelings of horror in the viewer. This sets the viewer up for grave disappointment as in the play it is s... ...p;  Ã‚  Perhaps Branagh used these actors for their names to help pull in the ratings. If this is the case, the ratings would have been high without them. Perhaps, he used them to get the image of them as “uneducated stars'; out of peoples’ minds. Or perhaps they used him for the dame reason. Either way, their parts do not fit the roles they played. Regardless the movie was excellent and it was immensely enjoyed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The movie kept you at the edge of your seat from the ‘ghost scene’ on. Although it was four hours, it seemed to go by much faster. It is always interesting to see a director’s interpretation or portrayal of the play. Kenneth Branagh did an excellent job. “2 thumbs up!';   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As an amazing play is moved to a movie, it is very sad to see characters or scenes lost. In Branagh’s “Hamlet'; very little is lost in his adaptation. This is very pleasing as the play is sensational The only problem faced is that of the comedic actors. This did not effect the outcome of the movie and many are looking forward to more of Branagh’s work.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Sustainable Improvements In Forest Conservation Environmental Sciences Essay

As in many parts of the Torrid Zones natural resources in general and peculiarly woods in Kenya are under terrible menaces. Rising demand for agricultural and timber production is seting force per unit area on the state ‘s forest resources. The other chief cardinal ground for this loss is that land users typically receive no compensation for the environmental services they generate for others. The loss of woods has been accompanied by a loss of many valuable services that forests provide such as C segregation, biodiversity preservation, and watershed protection. Currently at Mt Kenya there is a wood based preservation direction going-on through payment for environmental service strategies. Current thoughts of PES are emerging to counterbalance forest land proprietors for their land usage determinations towards sustainable forest preservation. PES ‘s are thought to widen an efficient mechanism for advancing and financing forest preservation by cut downing the force per uni t area of deforestation and debasement. In a comprehendible linguistic communication, the survey trades with sustainable betterments in forest preservation under PES strategy with peculiar mention to Mt Kenya natural forest modesty. More specifically, it tries to place the influence of PES with regard to raising environmental consciousness and development of new signifiers of support. Background of the survey In order to advance the preservation of specific physical natural resources at that place has been a long history of instruments designed to pay land proprietors straight in order to promote peculiar land direction patterns ( Sierra et al, 2006 ) . The old conventional preservation instruments have targeted, at changing grade, either at incorporate preservation ( preservation plus development ) or direct preservation ( preservation merely ) . Of these instruments integrated preservation and development undertakings ( ICDPs ) and sustainable wood direction ( SFM ) were the two major conventional attacks that have emerged to at the same time increase local incomes and conserve the forest ( Salafsky & A ; Wollenberg, 2000 ; Pearce et Al. 2003 ; Wunder, 2005 ) . These attacks aspire to unite societal development with preservation ends ( Hughes & A ; Flintan, 2001 ) . Payment for environmental service emerged partially in response to the perceived limited effectivity of holistic, indirect, non-conditional attacks, including ICDPs and SFM ( Wunder et al, 2009 ) . Compared to these attacks PES promise increased efficiency and increased effectiveness, as good increased equity in the distribution of costs and benefits ( Pagiola et al, 2002 ) . Experience with market based instruments has shown that PES can take to sustainable environmental betterments at significantly lower cost than conventional attacks, while making positive inducements for continual invention and betterments ( Pagiola et al, 2005 ) . Unlike the bid and control ordinance and environmental revenue enhancements conventional preservation instruments PES is based on the beneficiary-pays instead than the polluter-pays rule, and as such is attractive in scenes where ES suppliers are hapless, marginalized landowners or powerful groups of histrions ( Engel et al, 2008 ) . In a planetary context of stagnating or even diminishing public support for biodiversity preservation, PES have the possible both to raise some new financess, and to absorb more expeditiously money antecedently spent otherwise ( Wunder et al, 2009 ) . Recent old ages have seen considerable involvement in utilizing PES to finance preservation throughout the universe ( Landell-Mills & A ; Porras, 2002 ) . It is portion of a new and more direct preservation paradigm, explicitly acknowledging the demand of to bridge the involvements of landholders and foreigners ( Wunder, 2005 ) . PES has gained impulse after the Rio acme in 1992 and the confirmation of the Kyoto protocol in 1997 ( Yonas, 2009 ) . PES is a widely and progressively proposed scheme for developing economic inducements for biodiversity preservation in a scope of societal and ecological scenes around the universe ( Wunder et al, 2008 ; Nelson et Al, 2009 ) . Primarily it is been promoted across the development universe to back up environmental stewardship forest-based landscapes, and to turn to the bing instability between ingestion and resource preservation ( MEA, 2005 ; Kosoy et Al, 2007 ) . In developing universes PES are progressively used for advancing environmental preservation, and their impacts on local development are of considerable involvement ( Locatelli et al, 2008 ) . Many PES experiences in developing states are coming from Latin America. Costa Rica was the first developing state to hold implemented a nation-wide plan of payments for environmental services ( Engel, 2006 ) . With this pioneered PES undertaking wood proprietors are paid for the figure of hectare of forest they conserve irrespective of the quality and sum of environmental services delivered ( Wunder et al, 2009 ) . Africa ‘s engagement in all sort of PES undertakings is the lowest when compared to other parts of the universe, though late involvement in execution of PES is increasing. Harmonizing to Ferraro ( 2007 ) , Africa ‘s portion in the planetary C segregation was merely three per centum in 2003 and 2004. As stated on Jindal et Al ( 2008 ) out of 19 C segregation undertakings in Africa, seven are based in Kenya, Uganda or Tanzania which indicates East Africa is presently the favoured finish for international C investors. Porras et Al ( 2008 ) besides reported that o ut of the entire 42 payments for watershed services operated in developing universe merely 5 are implemented in Africa. It is by and large accepted that many woods provide a scope of environmental services which are thought to be among the most of import benefits that woods provide ( Maryanne et al, 2005 ) . There are four common types of payment for forest environmental services including C segregation, watershed protection, biodiversity, and landscape beauty ( Grieg-Gran et Al, 2005 ) . However, watershed protection, biodiversity preservation, and C segregation are routinely mentioned as justifications for forest preservation, or as cardinal standards and indexs of sustainable forest direction ( Pagiola et al, 2002 ) . The thought behind all of these PES strategies is unvarying. Those who provide ES should be compensated for the cost they incur in supplying services or for presenting land direction system which can profit the community and protect the wood ( Hall, 2008 ) . Statement of the job and justification Many believe that PES can supply powerful inducements and efficient agencies of conserving woods, while at the same clip offering new beginnings of income to back up rural developments ( Pagiola et al, 2002 ) . Assuming that the entire benefits of forest preservation additions well, it is presently likely that local wood proprietors will take to conserve woods ( Pagiola, 2008 ) . However despite turning involvement in utilizing PES many inquiries remain about the best manner to plan such strategies. There is still limited apprehension of how and under what conditions payments for environmental services will take to sustainable betterments in forest preservation and it ‘s utilizations. Potentially PES can take to sustainable betterments in forest preservation if it consequences in sing it raises environmental consciousness and the development of new signifiers of support that cut down force per unit areas. The two major conventional attacks ( ICDP and SFM ) has integrated environmental awareness raising as one of their thematic countries to work on ; PES initiatives besides focus on raising the awareness degree of the community on sustainable forest preservation and direction ( FAO et al. 2003 ) . As such, enhanced local consciousness enables better-informed decision-making and improves chances for partnerships between forestry and local land proprietors to prolong the preservation and usage of woods over the long term. Much of the theoretical PES literature references that the execution of PES strategy may move as an instrument to raise environmental consciousness by apportioning touchable economic values to services which by and large have no monetary value assigned to them ( FAO, 2004 ) . Contrary to this theoretical position, research undertaken on PES undertakings in developing states show that the degree of awareness creative activity is low even if participants get some sum of i ncome from the undertaking ( Alvaro-Brenes and Welsh, 2006 ) . The support of rural occupants in developing states is strongly tied with healthy ecosystem. Many of the ecosystems which generate valuable environmental services are degraded or under the menace of debasement ( MEA, 2005 ) . One of the chief grounds for the debasement of these ecosystems is that local resource proprietors do non hold adequate stimulation to pull off the ecosystem which provide services to others without been compensated. Thus PES, which is a market goaded preservation strategy, is designed to give inducements for land users ( ecosystem service suppliers ) to forestall the on-going ecosystem debasement and to better the community ‘s support signifiers ( Wunder, 2008 ) . Many research findings pointed out the possible advantages of implementing PES. It does take to the development of new signifiers of support that cut down force per unit area on forest resources. Noordwijk et Al ( 2008 ) on their analysis of pro hapless PES undertakings indicated that alteration s in the support signifiers will hold huge influence on the effectivity and efficiency of PES strategies on sustainable betterments of forest preservation. Furthermore, FAO ( 2004 ) highlighted the inter dependance of PES effectivity and community ‘s support background. Despite the above mentioned benefits and advancements made on the PES strategy, in pattern, it has non produced consequences in proposing enhanced local consciousness raising and development of new signifiers of support that reduces force per unit areas. There are really few forest preservation PES undertakings implemented in Africa and their nonsubjective with regard to raising consciousness and part to sustainable signifiers of support is non yet achieved ( Ferraro, 2007 ) . This survey covers the probe of the impact of PES on raising consciousness and development of new signifiers of support at Mt Kenya natural forest preservation PES undertakings. Apparently there is limited apprehension of how to plan PES to ensue in sustainable betterments of forest preservation and its utilizations. The socio-economic status of the communities, the characteristic characteristics of the wood and the engagement of different stakeholders makes analyzing PES strategies in Mt Kenya natural forest w orthwhile to look into the two conditions under which PES will potentially take to sustainable betterments in forest preservation. Aims of the survey General aim of the survey The chief aim of this survey will be to look into under what conditions will payments for environmental services lead to sustainable betterments in the forest preservation and usage of forest resources. Specific research inquiries of the survey Does community-based PES consequence in the development of environmental consciousness raising? Does community-based PES consequence in the development of new signifiers of sustainable support that cut down force per unit area on the forest resources? Working hypotheses of the survey The specific research inquiries of this survey will hold the undermentioned on the job hypothesis: Community based PES does non ensue in the development of environmental awareness creative activity. Community based PES does non ensue in the development of new signifiers of support that reduces force per unit area on the forest resources. Research design and methods Proposed design and conceptual model of the survey Conceptual logic of PES Fig. 1.A The logic of payments for environmental services which is adapted from Pagiola and Platais, 2007 S. Pagiola and G. Platais, Payments for Environmental Services: From Theory to Practice, World Bank, Washington ( 2007 ) .Pagiola and Platais ( 2007 ) . Beginning: Engel et Al, 2008. Harmonizing to Wunder ( 2005 ) the literature so far does non usually define PES, which contributes to some conceptual confusion. He defined PES strategy as ( 1 ) a voluntary dealing where ( 2 ) a chiseled environmental service ( or a land usage likely to procure that service ) ( 3 ) is being ‘bought ‘ by a ( minimal one ) service purchaser ( 4 ) from a ( minimal one ) service supplier ( 5 ) if and merely if the service supplier secures service proviso ( conditionality ) ( Wunder, 2005 ) . Following Wunder ‘s ( 2005 ) definition of PES Pagiola and Platais ( 2007 ) developed stupefying conceptual logic of PES strategy in a graphical representation. The land proprietors have different profitable land usage options than forest preservation on their land such as grazing land and agribusiness. From figure 1 above, local land proprietors frequently receive few benefits from land utilizations, for illustration, forest preservation and these benefits are often less than the benefits they would have from alternate land utilizations, such as transition to cropland or grazing land ( Engel et al, 2008 ) . As stated by Pagiola and Platais ( 2007 ) the transition to cropland or deforestation can enforce costs on downstream populations and on the planetary community. As a consequence the downstream population will no longer have the benefits of wood services and the planetary community will lose advantages from forest preservation. To do forest preservation the more profitable determination option than other alternate land usage land directors must be compensated for the chance cost they would incur when they conserve forest land. The proprietors need to internalise the negative outwardnesss to the local population and planetary community through compensation/incentives. In consequence, PES plans attempt to set into pattern the Coase theorem, which stipulates that the jobs of external effects can, under certain conditions, be overcome through private dialogue between affected parties ( Coase, 1960 R.H. Coase, The job of societal cost, Journal of Law and Economics 3 ( 1960 ) , pp. 1-44. Full Text via CrossRefCoase, 1960 ; Engel et Al, 2008 ) . The inducement should non be less than the chance cost of keeping the current land utilizations and should non be more than the benefit generated out of it. In add-on to doing forest preservation an attractive determination option the pecuniary inducements generated for internalising the outwardnesss of forest preservation have multi dimensional deductions. The extra income earned for conserving the wood has assorted influences on the socio-economic determination doing activity of local land proprietors. It creates consciousness about importance of the forest, by giving value to ES which did non hold any market value. It besides motivates land proprietors to be involved in tree planting and forest preservation. Furthermore, the excess income generated aids to develop new signifiers of support that would cut down the force per unit area on forest resources at local degree. Awareness raising attack as a model Though there is no formal definition of what the impression really means, consciousness raising refers to alarming the general populace that a certain issue exists and should be approached the manner the group desires. FAO ( 2003 ) explained awareness raising construct as ‘a multi-way communicating and interaction procedure which empowers people. This provides the footing for long-run dealingss and partnerships between the wood sector and the populace, and enables better informed determination doing ‘ . This on the job definition makes it clear that the procedure of consciousness elevation is different from any one-way flow of information or communicating procedure.acknowledge the jobplace the contextdefine opportunismgather and exchange informationbetter self-understanding of the state of affairsconstruct trust in decision-makingtravel beyond the obvious and accustomedinvent new solutions and balances of involvementdevelop new relationshipsmobilise willingness to movegat her equal resourcesfoster new partnershipsalteration societal attitude and behaviorproctor advancement in executionevaluate consequencesRaise people ‘s attending and involvementIncrease people ‘s ability to implement the alterationImprove populace cognition and apprehensionImplement the alteration and measure advancementIncrease societal accomplishments and competences for alterationFigure 2. Raising awareness as a agency to enable societal alterations ( Initially developed by the squad and subsequently adapted harmonizing to Giordan ( 1996 ) ) . Beginning: FAO, 2003 The societal facets of PES strategy have non yet been given as much attending as the economic and ecological facets. Too frequently PES strategy is hampered by misconception, woods and their services are undervalued because of deficiency of consciousness. Therefore in order to back up sustainable betterments in forest preservation raising public consciousness is the important first measure for many on the way to understanding the issues and a better grasp of the benefits good managed woods provide ( FAO, 2003 ) . It can besides beef up the willingness of the society to back up sustainable forest preservation. The sustainable supports attack as a model Miranda et Al ( 2003 ) have studied the societal impact of the PES strategy at Costa Rica based on the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach ( SLA ) , looking at the impacts on the different signifiers of support practiced by the communities. The SL model was adapted from a theoretical account developed by the UK ‘s Department for International Development ( DFID ) in the late ninetiess as a wide conceptual model or as a practical tool for planing plans and rating schemes ( DFID, 1999 ; Murray et Al, 2001 ) . The SLA is a manner to better our apprehension of supports, peculiarly the supports of the hapless ( UNDP, 1999 ) and it can be used in be aftering new development ( or preservation ) activities and in measuring the part that bing activities have made to prolonging supports ( IFAD, 2009 ) . Figure 3. The Sustainable Livelihoods Approach ( Initially developed by DFID ) . Beginning: UNDP, 1999 The model positions people as operating in a context of exposure to the environment which influences the support signifiers – ways of combine and utilizing assets – that are unfastened to people in chase of good support results that meet their ain support aims ( DFID, 1999 ) . The different type of intercessions at authorities administrations, private sector, Torahs, civilization, policies and establishments degrees affect the support signifiers adopted and influence support results ( Miranda et al, 2003 ) . Study country Mt Kenya ( 5,199A meters ( 17,057A foot ) ) , Africa ‘s 2nd highest extremum after Kilimanjaro ( 5,895 meters or 19,341A foot ) , straddles the equator about 193 kilometers ( kilometer ) north-east of Nairobi and about 480km from the Kenya seashore. It is regarded as the kingdom of Ngai, God of the local Kikuyu and Meru people. They call it Kirinyaga, or topographic point of visible radiation. They believe that their traditional God Ngai and his married woman Mumbi live on the extremum of the mountain and utilize it for their traditional rites. Mount Kenya is besides the beginning of the name of the Republic of Kenya. The forested inclines in Mt Kenya ecosystem are an of import beginning of H2O for much of Kenya which provides H2O straight for over 2 million people. It is the chief H2O catchment country for two big rivers in Kenya ; theA Tana, the largest river in Kenya, and the Ewaso Ng'iso North. Mount Kenya has several distinguishable natural ecological zones, between the savanna environing the mountain to the nival zone by the glaciers. Each zone has a diverse species of zoology and vegetations due to the differences in height, rainfall, facet and temperature. It ‘s described as one of the most impressive landscapes in Eastern Africa with its rugged glacier-clad acmes, Afro-alpine moorlands and diverse woods that illustrate outstanding ecological procedures ( KWS, 2010 ) .A Many of the species found in Mt Kenya are endemic, either to Mount Kenya or East Africa, and are extremely specialised ( Bussmann, 1994 ) . Approximately three-fourthss of Afro-alpine flora are endemic. The montane forest around Mount Kenya is full of a assortment of species and many species ofA animalsA live in theA montane wood. A An country of 715A square kilometers ( 276A sqA myocardial infarction ) around the Centre of the mountain is designated as aA National Park, most of which is above the 3,000A meters ( 9,800A foot ) contour lineA and the forest modesty has an country of 705A square kilometers ( 272A sqA myocardial infarction ) . In 1978 the national park and the forest modesty, combined, are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Site 1,420A square kilometers ( 548A sqA myocardial infarction ) ( IUCN, 1997 ) . Mount Kenya National Park, established in 1949, protects the part environing the mountain. Initially it was a forest modesty earlier been announced as a national park. Presently the national park is within the forest modesty which encircles it. The country is being managed by the authorities ( both by Kenya Wildlife Service andA ForestryA Department ( the now called Kenya Forest Service ) ) . The authorities of Kenya had four grounds for making a national park and denominating forest modesty on and around Mt Kenya natural wood. These were the importance of touristry for the local and national economic systems, to continue an country of great scenic beauty, to conserve the biodiversity within the park, and to continue the H2O catchments for the environing country ( UNEP, 2008 ) . In this country most of the PES enterprises has been organized and facilitated by the Forestry Department ( Kenya Forest Service ) and Kenya Wildlife Service. Map1. The location of Mt Kenya national park and natural wood modesty Data Requirement Both secondary and primary informations will be collected for the survey. Secondary informations on different literatures will be obtained from establishments, studies, surveies, and other published and unpublished stuffs found to be relevant for the survey. The variables on which primary informations are required for this survey will be categorized in to the followers: Socio-economic features of sample local land directors Land directors ‘ consciousness degree on the forest environmental services and its preservation due to PES New sustainable signifiers of support resulted due to PES Data aggregation method From the practical experience of Miranda et Al ( 2003 ) there will be an explorative informal treatment with local PES facilitators and the province Forest Department ( now Kenya Forest Service ) for puting up the survey informations aggregation sites. The PES strategy at Mt Kenya natural wood is being implemented at the buffer zones of the Mt Kenya national Parkss and natural forested countries. Locatelli et Al ( 2008 ) and Miranda et Al ( 2003 ) stratified the families into categories based on land keeping size to measure the impact of PES on local development and socio-economic features. The ground why they have used land keeping size as base of stratification is PES in Costa Rica, where they conducted the survey, is implemented on the private land and has deduction of wealth. However PES strategy at Mt Kenya is implemented on the communal land and the engagement of local land directors is determined by their distance from the wood. Stratification for this survey will be based on the distance that the local land directors are located from the wood. Based on the participants distance from the forest in different zones the samples will be indiscriminately selected at most from three divisions of zones. Sample-size finding is frequently an of import measure in be aftering a statistical study-and it is normally a hard one ( Lenth, 2001 ) . However, given the practicality and logistical concerns of the sample size finding the survey will be of equal size, comparative to the ends of the survey. The interview will be carried out for 5 hebdomads get downing from the first hebdomad of June 2010. Semi-structured interview will be conducted with local land directors. Many research workers have employed semi-structured interview for their survey, for case, Carter ( 2009 ) , Corbera et Al ( 2006 ) , Locatelli et Al ( 2008 ) and Sommerville et Al ( 2009 ) ( with focal point group ) employed this method to look into the socio-economic facets of PES strategy. In qualitative questioning semi-structured format is preferred to structured interview because of its flexibleness ( Bryman, 2004 ) , and it allows the research worker to detect what the survey populations perceive to be of import and gives participants some opportunities to hold control over the interview experience ( Lam, 2002 ; Yonas, 2009 ) . Semi structured interviews with little focal point groups will besides be conducted. The focal point group method is an interview in which interviewees are selected because they are kno wn to hold been involved in peculiar state of affairs ( Bryman, 2004 ) . Consequently the little focal point groups will be from local PES organisers and facilitators at Mt Kenya and the province forestry organisation ( Kenya Forest Service ) . Method of informations analysis Because qualitative informations deducing from interviews or participant observation typically take the signifier of big principal of unstructured textual stuff, they are non directly frontward to analyze ( Bryman, 2004 ) . In our survey the qualitative and descriptive statistical analysis will be used. To prove the significance of the new supports developed and awareness raised by PES activities, the collected information on both variables will be analyzed utilizing appropriate computer-assisted qualitative informations analysis package ( CAQDAS ) and the relevant statistical trial will be employed. SLA attack will be used as a model in order to measure the impact of PES strategy on the signifiers of local community support. We will compare the current new support signifiers with the baseline support signifier that would happen without the PES strategy. The local land directors will be asked how their support signifiers developed since the beginning of the execution of PES strategy at their community. Locatelli et Al ( 2008 ) evaluated the impact of the payment for environmental services PSA on local developments in northern Costa Rica by comparing the current state of affairs with the baseline state of affairs that would hold occurred without the PSA. In order to measure the impact of PES strategy on consciousness creative activity the method used by Yonas ( 2009 ) will be applied. He grouped the consciousness degree into four classs: really high, high, low and really low consciousness degrees, based on the figure of environmental services they are cognizant, that the wood can bring forth, after their engagement in PES strategy. Consequently those who mention more than four forest Einsteinium are ranked under really high consciousness degree, followed by those who mention three and two ES under high and low consciousness degrees severally. Finally, those who mention merely one ES and who do non hold any thought about ES will be ranked under really low consciousness degree. Furthermore, information from both local land directors and the focal point group will be used to set about the rating of the impact of PES on societal apprehension, societal attitude and behavior about PES strategy as both preservation attack and development at tack. Based on FAO ( 2003 ) standard the effectivity and influence of consciousness raising signifiers and agencies will besides be considered in the rating of PES strategy on awareness creative activity. Expected result of the survey We would anticipate this field-based survey to bring forth necessary findings required for the future facilitation of PES strategy in order to accomplish sustainable betterments in forest preservation and its utilizations. More specifically the expected result of the survey would be an reply for the limited apprehension of how to plan PES strategy to ensue in sustainable betterments of forest preservation and its utilizations. 4. Work program and timeline Table 1. An lineation of the work program is as follows: Activity Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sept Draft research program presentation Final research program Secondary literature study Literature reappraisal composing Field informations aggregation Datas analysis First concluding daft Concluding entry Resources In order to set about the survey at Mt Kenya natural forest the pupil has got a travel award 2010 from Natural Resources International Foundation. The insurance strategy and scholarship award from European Union under Erasmus Mundus plan has besides great parts during the field visit. The necessary information and counsel obtained from Lecturer DR. Julia Jones has been assisting the pupil in set uping the surveies.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Alexander Hamilton’s Financial Program

Alexander Hamilton was to say in 1792, â€Å"Most of the important measures of every government are connected with the Treasury†. This simple yet profound axiom he had come to as a result of his reflections on the nature of statecraft and the obligations of government. Installed in office, he had accepted this as his guiding principle. The basic nature of public finance to assure stability and promote welfare has been alluded to in these observations again and again.A government that keeps its own house in order both attracts and creates confidence: to the financing of its own obligations and for the support of those business ventures, or enterprises, without which a society cannot create employment and wealth. The Treasury at once became the largest and the leading office of the government. Its interests ramified into the whole economic life of the nation. It was intimately associated with commerce and shipping; with the commercial banks of the nation; with a large part of th e country's farming community.It bought the army's supplies, it sold the nation's public lands, it negotiated with foreign governments. This was not usurpation: for Congress, in establishing the Treasury Department, had given it wide powers independent of the Executive. Hamilton was simply utilizing his opportunities. All this did not fail to create unease and then dissent. Madison, originally the Administration's spokesman in the House of Representatives, left Hamilton's side in the battle over the assumption of the state debts.Jefferson, who at the start had expressed his satisfaction with the Constitution and Hamilton's funding proposals, more and more saw their differences in terms of power: an energetic government could become an irresponsible, and therefore a dangerous, one. By the spring of 1792, there was an organized opposition to the Administration with Hamilton the chief focus of distrust. The charges against Hamilton ran the whole gamut from truth to falsity.It was being said, he was consistently the friend of a speculative interest, he unduly favored commerce and finance at the expense of agriculture, he himself was personally involved in questionable practices. He was subverting democracy; he was preparing the way for a monarchy. These charges were both unkind and untrue. Hamilton was indignant at accusations directed against his personal rectitude; and he had every right to be. If there was a public servant in all of America's annals who conducted himself with exact propriety, it was he.From the vast operations in the public funds, neither he nor his family ever benefited; and he quit his post after more than five years in office a poor man. In one of his letters to Washington, he cried out against his detractors: â€Å"I have not fortitude enough always to hear with calmness calumnies which necessarily include me. . . . I trust I shall always be able to bear, as I ought, imputations of errors of judgment; but I acknowledge that I cannot be ent irely patient under charges which impeach the integrity of my public motives or conduct. â€Å"As for seeking to undermine democracy, it again must be noted that Hamilton was distrustful of democracy only in its equalitarian sense. He was not convinced of the equality of talents among men; he was realistic concerning their motives and knew how quickly they could be encouraged to yield to passion and enmity. He believed in government by the people, but on the representative principle, and he was prepared to accept the guidance of leaders as long as they regarded office as a public trust. The charge that he was a monarchist was a political one designed to embarrass him; it never had any foundation in fact.Hamilton was against any kind of discrimination; the debt was to be purchased from those now in possession at full value. In the handling of a problem like this, Hamilton was at his best: he knew how to marshal arguments tellingly and present them simply. The carrying out of the det ails of a plan based on discrimination would be immense, the difficulties insurmountable. Further, discrimination was unconstitutional; it ran counter to the position of Congress, expressed as early as 1783. Most important of all:The impolicy of a discrimination results from two considerations: one, that it proceeds upon a principle destructive of that quality of the public debt, or the stock of the nation, which is essential to its capacity for answering the purposes of money – that is, the security of transfer; the other, that, as well on this account as because it includes a breach of faith, it renders property in the funds less valuable, consequently it induces lenders to demand a higher premium for what they lend, and produces every other inconvenience of a bad state of public credit.Hamilton then went into great detail on a number of technical matters: how the state debts were to be assumed; the different methods of funding; what sources of revenue could be tapped for i nterest payments and debt service. In connection with the last, he proposed to set aside receipts from duties on imports and tonnage, and impose new taxes on wines, spirits (including those distilled within the United States), teas and coffee. Wise politicians, he had noted in one of his earliest memoranda, ought to â€Å"march at the head of affairs,† and â€Å"produce the event†.How then produce the event? He had, if possible, to contrive measures which should be immediately and strikingly effective, and at the same time provide a basis for permanent development. The exigencies of the moment, however, were decisive. To restore the public credit was the first step toward buttressing the national government. The measures Hamilton adopted, all directed to this one purpose. In his Report on Public Credit (1790) he advocated full payment of public debts, including those incurred by the States â€Å"as the sacred price of liberty.† He would thus â€Å"cement the Un ion† by establishing the national credit, and by enlisting the support of all holders of public securities. In his Report on a National Bank (1790) he revived, in new form, the project of his Letter to Morris of 1781. He remembered how an English government, after a revolution, had chartered the Bank of England, in order to solve its financial difficulties, and at the same time to solidify the Whig mercantile interest in its support. By incorporating a similar syndicate he could accomplish the same purposes.He must of course draw upon the â€Å"implied powers†; he had long since seen that only thus was it possible to meet the needs of government. In his famous Report on Manufactures ( 1791) he proposed government aid to â€Å"infant industries,† in order to assure in war a â€Å"national supply,† to establish economic along with political independence, and in general to develop the national resources. Contemplating a wise central management of the whole Am erican estate, he foresaw local swallowed up by national interests in a country self-contained and self-sufficient.In a letter written near the end of his career Hamilton struck an unusual note of despondency. â€Å"Mine,† he says, â€Å"is an odd destiny. Perhaps no man in the United States has sacrificed or done more for the present Constitution than myself; and contrary to all my anticipations of its fate, as you know from the very beginning, I am still laboring to prop the frail and worthless fabric†¦. Every day proves to me more and more that this American world was not made for me†¦. The time may ere long arrive,† he adds, â€Å"when the minds of men will be prepared to make an effort to recover the Constitution, but†¦we must wait a while†. Hamilton was clearly undervaluing his own labors. If he seemed to fail, it was because he had gone too fast and had neglected elements of the problem which to the country seemed essential. Hamilton's idea l conception of government was never realized, but it has perhaps made some contribution to the general theory of politics. By a recent writer it has been identified with that of Hobbes – the â€Å"leviathan state†. With this indeed it has something in common – in its outlook, even in its principles.Hamilton believed in an undivided and indefeasible sovereignty, and in the subject's duty of disciplined obedience. He believed it the duty of the sovereign jealously to protect its own sovereignty, and to provide for the subject's welfare by well considered and strictly enforced laws. He believed in a wise and benevolent paternal government. Not, however, in an absolute one. Taking over the conception of the strong state as he found it in Hobbes and elsewhere, he modified it to suit his own purposes, by adapting it to American conditions, by attempting to make it at once strong and responsible.He clearly added to it a new element in combining it with universal manho od suffrage. He took care to introduce also other principles of representation and carefully devised safeguards on the popular will. Thus he sought to make his state not only powerful and permanent, but balanced and responsible – indeed the more permanent because balanced and responsible. He attempted to reconcile apparently conflicting, but, as he thought, essential principles by turning the leviathan state into a republic.Though not in its fulness realized, his conception has influenced the political thought not only of America but of Europe. Confidence had been destroyed under the Congress and the Confederation; and to its restoration Hamilton set to work at once. In less than three years, as the Secretary of the Treasury, as the result of a series of masterly reports all but one of which ended in legislation, Hamilton laid the basis of the financial integrity of the United States. His brilliant mind ranged over every aspect of the government's needs.He concerned himself w ith the debt – its assumption, consolidation, funding, and management and redemption; he watched the revenue inflow – recommending and obtaining new sources when government outlays increased; he pressed for and obtained the creation of a national bank – to act as a government depository and lender and to safeguard the money supply of the nation; he established a mint – thereby fixing the gold-silver ratio and assuring a bimetallic standard for the United States; he worked ceaselessly to attract foreign capital into the United States – to provide the funds for private banking institutions, public works projects, even manufacturing.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The African Berbers

The African Berbers The Berbers, or Berber, has a number of meanings, including a language, a culture, a location, and a group of people: most prominently it is the collective term used for dozens of tribes of pastoralists, indigenous people who herd sheep and goats and live in northwest Africa today.  Despite this simple description, Berber ancient history is truly complex. Who Are the Berbers? In general, modern scholars believe that the Berber people are descendants of the original colonizers of North Africa. The Berber way of life was established at least 10,000 years ago as Neolithic Caspians. Continuities in material culture suggest that the people living along the coasts of the Maghreb 10,000 years ago simply added domestic sheep and goats in when they became available, so the odds are theyve been living in northwest Africa for much longer. Modern Berber social structure is tribal, with male leaders over groups practicing sedentary agriculture. They are also fiercely successful traders  and were the first to open the commercial routes between Western Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, at locations such as Essouk-Tadmakka in Mali. The ancient history of the Berbers is by no means as tidy. Ancient History of Berbers The earliest historical references to people known as Berbers are from Greek and Roman sources. The unnamed first century AD sailor/adventurer who wrote the Periplus of the Erythrian Sea describes a region called Barbaria, located south of the city of Berekike on the Red Sea coast of east Africa. The first century AD Roman geographer Ptolemy (90-168 AD) also knew of the Barbarians, located on the Barbarian bay, which led to the city of Rhapta, their main city. Arabic sources for the Berber include the sixth-century poet Imru al-Qays who mentions horse-riding Barbars in one of his poems, and Adi bin Zayd (d. 587) who mentions the Berber in the same line with the eastern African state of Axum (al-Yasum). The 9th-century Arabic historian Ibn Abd al-Hakam (d. 871) mentions a Barbar market in al-Fustat. Berbers in Northwest Africa Today, of course, Berbers are associated with people indigenous to northwest Africa, not east Africa. One possible situation is that the northwestern Berbers were not the eastern Barbars at all, but instead were the people the Romans called Moors (Mauri or Maurus). Some historians call any group living in northwest Africa Berbers, to refer to the people who were conquered by Arabs, Byzantines, Vandals, Romans, and Phoenicians, in reverse chronological order. Rouighi (2011) has an interesting idea that the Arabs created the term Berber, borrowing it from the east African Barbars during the Arab Conquest, their expansion of the Islamic empire into North Africa and the Iberian peninsula. The imperialist Umayyad caliphate, says Rouighi, used the term Berber to group the people living nomadic pastoralist lifestyle in northwestern Africa, about the time they conscripted them into their colonizing army. The Arab Conquests Shortly after the establishment of the Islamic settlements at Mecca and Medina in the 7th century AD, the Muslims began expanding their empire. Damascus was captured from the Byzantine Empire in 635 and by, 651, Muslims controlled all of Persia. Alexandria in Egypt was captured in 641. The Arab conquest of North Africa began between 642-645  when general Amr ibn el-Aasi based in Egypt led his armies westward. The army quickly took Barqa, Tripoli, and Sabratha, establishing a military outpost for further successes in the Maghreb of coastal northwestern Africa. The first northwestern African capital was at al-Qayrawan. By the 8th century, the Arabs had kicked the Byzantines completely out of Ifriqiya (Tunisia) and more or less controlled the region. The Umayyad Arabs reached the shores of the Atlantic in the first decade of the 8th century and then captured Tangier. The Umayyads made Maghrib a single province including all of northwestern Africa. In 711, the Umayyad governor of Tangier, Musa Ibn Nusayr, crossed the Mediterranean Sea into Iberia with an army made up mostly of ethnic Berber people. Arabic raids pushed far into the northern regions and created the Arabic Al-Andalus (Andalusian Spain). The Great Berber Revolt By the 730s, the northwestern African army in Iberia challenged Umayyad rules, leading to the Great Berber Revolt of 740 AD against the governors of Cordoba. A Syrian general named Balj ib Bishr al-Qushayri ruled Andalusia in 742, and after the Umayyads fell to the Abbasid caliphate, the massive orientalization of the region began in 822 with the ascent of Abd ar-Rahman II to the role of Emir of Cordoba. Enclaves of Berber tribes from Northwest Africa in Iberia today include the Sanhaja tribe in the rural parts of the Algarve (southern Portugal), and the Masmuda tribe in the Tagus and Sado river estuaries with their capital at Santarem. If Rouighi is correct, then the history of the Arab Conquest includes the creation of a Berber ethnos from the allied but not previously related groups of northwestern Africa. Nonetheless, that cultural ethnicity is a reality today. Ksar: Berber Collective Residences House types used by modern Berbers include everything from movable tents to cliff and cave dwellings, but a truly distinctive form of building found in sub-Saharan Africa and attributed to Berbers is the ksar (plural ksour). Ksour are elegant, fortified villages made completely with mud brick. Ksour have high walls, orthogonal streets, a single gate and a profusion of towers. The communities are built next to oases, but to preserve as much tillable farmland as possible they soar upward. The surrounding walls are 6-15 meters (20-50 feet) high and buttressed along the length and at the corners by even taller towers of a distinctive tapering form. The narrow streets are canyon-like; the mosque, bathhouse, and a small public plaza are situated close to the single gate which often faces east. Inside the ksar there is very little ground-level space, but the structures still permit high densities in the high rise stories. They provide a defensible perimeter, and a cooler micro-climate produced by low surface to volume ratios. The individual roof terraces provide space, light, and a panoramic view of the neighborhood via a patchwork of raised platforms 9 m (30 ft) or more above the surrounding terrain. Sources Curtis WJR. 1983. Type and Variation: Berber Collective Dwellings of the Northwestern Sahara. Muqarnas 1:181-209.Detry C, Bicho N, Fernandes H, and Fernandes C. 2011. The Emirate of Cà ³rdoba (756–929 AD) and the introduction of the Egyptian mongoose (Herpestes ichneumon) in Iberia: the remains from Muge, Portugal. Journal of Archaeological Science 38(12):3518-3523.Frigi S, Cherni L, Fadhlaoui-Zid K, and Benammar-Elgaaied A. 2010. Ancient Local Evolution of African mtDNA Haplogroups in Tunisian Berber Populations. Human Biology 82(4):367-384.Goodchild RG. 1967. Byzantines, Berbers and Arabs in 7th-century Libya. Antiquity 41(162):115-124.Hilton-Simpson MW. 1927. Algerian Hill-forts of today. Antiquity 1(4):389-401.Keita SOY. 2010. Biocultural Emergence of the Amazigh (Berbers) in Africa: Comment on Frigi et al (2010). Human Biology 82(4):385-393.Nixon S, Murray M, and Fuller D. 2011. Plant use at an early Islamic merchant town in the West African Sahel: the archaeobotany of E ssouk-Tadmakka (Mali). Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 20(3):223-239. Rouighi R. 2011. The Berbers of the Arabs. Studia Islamica 106(1):49-76.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Transition Words and Phrases How to Use Them in Academic Writing

Transition Words and Phrases How to Use Them in Academic Writing Composing a sentence, you create a new thought. It is expressed on the paper; each phrase and sentence has a definite hidden idea to be conveyed to the reader. World languages have sentences of different types. It doesn't matter how long they are. More important is what idea they host - it can be a conclusion, an observation, summary, evaluation. To organize your thoughts to one chain, transition words are used. They determine logical point within the process of idea creation. Using them, it is possible to make analysis, put emphasis, define relationship - transition words show connection between the thoughts. Use Them Wisely Transitions words are used to logically connect and smooth flow of sentences; they have many functions within the sentence. They underline writers' knowledge, reasoning, emotions in the written discourse. Some of them should be used extensively within academic writing. You will learn vital information concerning usage of these elements on our blog article. Definite list of types of transition words exists. Each group is used to logically connect one part of written content (paragraph) to another; if you have not worked with these words, learn more with us. You can read about them here. Addition group Adversative group Casual transitions Sequential transitions Addition Conflict Cause/Reason Numerical Introduction Emphasis Condition Continuation Reference Adversative Effect/Consequence Digression Similarity Replacement Purpose Resumption Identification Concession Conclusion/Summation Groups of Transition Words Addition Group This group, named additive transitions, is large comparing to other groups of these words. Addition transitions help unite sentences to a logical consequence. To compose the argument writing your paper, this type is commonly used: moreover, besides are good examples. Pay attention, you should write each word or phrase at the right place. It will have severe effect on the content. Misuse of these elements can result in inappropriate understanding of your thought; your reader may be confused. Additive elements add value to the sentence - they emphasize the right information; additive word underlines your attitude to the situation. One word easily can determine writer’s attitude to the situation described. Writing research papers such words should be used wisely. They should not be used many times; on contrary avoid to express personal attitude with similar words. Introduction words are less demanding and signify less than additive ones: including, particularly belong to Introduction set of elements. They have neurat meaning. You can put them at the beginning of the paragraph; they are good to introduce your thoughts. On contrast to words from addition set, introduction words can be used by students who creates his/her academic papers. Reference set is used to refer to the the matter: regarding, the fact that, considering are expressions that direct us. They attracts readers’ attention to the object; students use them in academic writing. Similarity words include: likewise, equally, etc. They link two objects having similar features; they add stylistic perfection to the text. Such words determine fine organisation of a sentence. Identification set of transitions is an important one writing your academic essays: namely, specifically, are several meaningful examples. Identification set emphasizes the meaning of writer’s thought. ORDER PERFECT ESSAY NOW Adversative Group This big group is Adversative transitions; they are used to show contradiction, oppose relationships. Conflict elements include in fact, conversely, etc. They are clearly adding a comparison meaning. Their place within the sentence varies - it depends on writer’s intention and logical flow of paper’s content. Emphasis elements are a unique part of English lexics: for instance, more importantly are add additional reasoning to the content. Adversative set is used to dismiss information. Either way, at any rate - writing your paper use them to signal conflict, contradiction concession, dismissal, etc. Replacement set includes rather, instead, etc. They define correlation relationships between the objects; you need to use them smartly in academic papers. Concession elements - however, regardless, etc. They enrich writing - using them correctly your writing will look sophisticated and professional. Causal Transitions Another big group you should pay attention to is causal transitions; they relate to cause-reason relationship in the sentence. Cause/reason elements of this type include in a view of, being that, because. Do not leave them beside your attention; within academic writing they shows how writer can analyze given facts. Condition set of words is used writing research academic work. Scientists test hypothesis and these words may help reader to better understand paper’s logical flow: even if, in case, etc. Phrases are short but irreplaceable studying science course at the university. Effect/Consequence transitions describe result, explain reasons. Accordingly, so that, therefore are good examples to show the after effect of actions, events, problems occured and solved. Purpose set includes in the hope of, with this in mind, etc. These elements are important; they show reasons of events, thoughts, characters’ actions and deeds. Sequential Transitions Sequential transitions are the last group left to be discussed; they primarily show logical sequence of events. Numerical set includes initially, to start with, firstly, etc. They are good to underline the strength of reasoning; numerical order shows readers that writer masters his/her arguments logically. Continuation words: subsequently, previously, etc. Â  It draws the continuity line between objects, acts, thoughts making chains of events logically connected to readers’ better understanding. Digression set includes incidentally, by the way. It serves to change the topic of the sentence; writers use them to switch reader’s attention to other vital information. Resumption words are very popular within all sorts of writing. Anyhow, anyway, at any rate add stilistic accents to the sentence; do not tend to overuse them - your writing may be considered watery with no added value. Conclusion/Summation transitions are used to summarize the information and derive a conclusion. Students should use them within summary/conclusive parts of their works; they add assertiveness to the conclusions and make a thesis statement stated at introductory part of the paper stronger. Transitions words make the discourse of writing richer; students should use them widely writing their academic assignments. Remember not to overuse transitional elements. If you are new to the topic, learn more about academic writing or order your perfect essay from a team of professional writers. Good luck! GET MY SMOOTH ESSAY

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Get Hired Faster What to Do When You Interview [Infographic]

Get Hired Faster What to Do When You Interview [Infographic] We all know what to do when we go on an interview- right? Dress up, say hello, give a firm handshake. There’s actually a lot more that you can do before you even pull on a suit and walk through the door. For starters, it helps to put some time in. Find out what you can about the company- that can lead to insightful interview questions during the actual interview. Then you can even plan out your trip to the interview, including the route and parking.It never hurts to investigate the people you’re interviewing with, too. There are also some dos and don’ts, from dressing appropriately (a plus) to leaving your cell phone on (a minus).Then, remember essential politeness. Be kind- to everyone and remember names. Be specific and be positive, and understand what the post-interview timeline is.Need some helpful interview reminders? Use this helpful infographic: [Source: Akkencloud]

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Sift cupcake and dessert bar Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Sift cupcake and dessert bar - Essay Example Since its inception, a few members of staff have been on board and they include Corey Fanfa who joined the Sift team after quitting her career. She spent most of her childhood with Andrea, the baking business was not new to her either, and she quite enjoyed it. Sift has been enlisted on several Food networks including the cupcake wars where Andrea and Corey entered. This gave Sift the much edge that they needed and helped improve the skills of the business and learn what they needed to do to make the better cup cakes. For Sift, the business is just not a business but a passion for them as they are engaged in an activity that they love and are a passionate about. Sift has a wide market being in a college town and ensuring that the customer is satisfied with the product has seen the business grow in leaps and bounds to where it is today. Evaluation and Strategy Andrea, Her Husband, Jeff and Corey are the managers of the business and the key decision makers and they feel that is about t ime that the business expanded and became the premier cupcake business of choice in the Bay area of San Francisco. Cupcakes are an extremely popular product in the United States base on the fact that they are cheap and also very sweet and yummy. They are also easily accessible and when well made, they give the client a satisfying feel. The product was made popular by the movie Sex and the City and has since then grown to the extent of having a food channel Cup Cake Wars, which Sift occasionally, display their product offerings. The main problem facing the goal that Sift wants to achieve is their line of Credit. They needed to hire more staff that will help the business to rapidly expand and become the premier cup cake shop. The current line of credit that they have in the bank cannot be used as it will hamper the efforts that they have of seeking the small business loans which they badly need to ensure that they become the premier cupcake shop in san Francisco. To be able to achieve these goals, Sift needs to clearly map its goals and objectives as well as know what it wants to achieve as of now. What is important to them as of now is to acquire the capital through the loan and hence expand to become the premier cup cake shop. However, their efforts can be hampered by the lack of expertise as the three of them cannot quite manage to handle the bigger business and they will require more skills and competencies to be able to meander through it. The business has several factors working for them against those working against them. Firstly, there is a huge demand for cupcakes in the market. This means that in spite of the harsh times, there will always be demand for the cakes. The cost is relatively cheap which means the consumers can afford the product. The size of the cupcakes is small and hence not a big indulgence especially with everyone being weary of their health. The product is viewed as a snack for getting the much needed sugar fix as people watch what the y are eating. The other success factor for the business is a market niche, which is already established. The business has a huge customer base in women who are high-income earners and are sure of what product they are looking for and what product they want. There is also a presence of a huge market online for the business. Sift has been able to grow to a large business since its

Friday, October 18, 2019

Strategy and change management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words - 1

Strategy and change management - Essay Example With the aim to reduce the operational cost several business enterprises engaged in the airline industry decided to merge. The year 2008 marked the emergence of the world’s largest airline named Delta after the successful merger of two proclaimed organizations namely Delta Airlines, Inc and Northwest Airline Corp. The capability of the newly developed airline company increased as a result of the merger. Northwest Airline is now a subsidiary of the former organization. The low cost airlines seem to compete in the market where the density of passengers is high and in such a market the low cost airlines can enjoy the competitive advantages. They offer timely services and the low cost acts as the catalyst in driving the travellers to the airlines booking offices. In the airline industry the economies of scale theory has a major role to play. The density of traffic allows the airline organizations to offer such low fares and is a prime feature of the industry. The economies of scale theory also bring some non price benefits along with it. The airline companies try to compete with the tool of product d ifferentiation and the quality customer service seems to make up the other tools of competition. The airline operators in Europe and America had to face turbulences during the period of downturn. The competition revolved around fares, service and operational efficiency. The over reliance on the market of North America has been one of the reason for the turbulence for the company under consideration. The topic of merger and acquisition is a topic of discussion in the airline industry. The price of fuel and the increased cost of operation have acted to shuffle the balance of the forecasted growth for the airline operators. The assignment will take into consideration the significance of the merger that exists between Delta Airlines and Northwest Airlines. In 2008 the two companies discussed

An analysis of cross-functional teams in procurement and acquisitions Term Paper

An analysis of cross-functional teams in procurement and acquisitions - Term Paper Example This indicates that the prime objective of logistics is to avail raw materials, commodities, and goods, satisfying four main requirements that include order, cost fulfillment, quality and delivery. Logistics as a result entails several value adding activities that include production, time, location, and control of the supply chain (Rodrigue & Hesse, 2012). It highlights the organizational and material support of globalization. Logistic activities include physical distributions of the goods (derived transport segment), and the materials segment (the induced transport segment). The objective of this essay is to analyze a logistics management case ‘Online Store’ and come up with a detailed discussion on how the business can develop a new online retail business. The discussion will focus on the following logistic activities: Singaporean sourcing operations supplier selection, evaluation and Procurement, International transportation from Singapore to Australia, and Australian Quarantine and inspection clearance (, 2010). The essay highlights how the above logistic activities can help the business to produce its products at a lower cost, and add value to time and place utility. Singaporean Sourcing Operations Supplier Selection, Evaluation and Procurement Procurement entails more than mere purchase of goods and services. With the increased need for business competitiveness and the growing pressure to deliver value to shareholders, interest in global procurement has been accorded greater attention. Businesses have resorted to global supply chain and procurement as a means for survival and attainment of competitive edge. The amount of money that businesses spend on procurement is often substantial taking approximately 50% to 85% of the company`s revenues. In search for high quality goods but at a lor cost, businesses like the Online Store have turned their attention to Asia for a wide range of sourcing ranging from materials, supplier identification , services to outsourcing. Singapore as a country is strategically located in addition to having sufficient business infrastructure. Because of this attractiveness, global businesses have been attracted to Singapore in their procurement undertakings (Singapore Fact Sheet, 2012). Sourcing Operations A number of rules guide the exportation of goods from Singapore. In its sourcing operations, Online Store has to adhere to these rules. According to Singapore Customs (2012), the following rules have to be adhered to: Fist the company must obtain an out permit through TradeNet. If the goods are not controlled and they are exported through air or sea, the permit has to be obtained within three days of the export. If the goods ate controlled or are being exported to Australia via rail or road, then the permit has to be obtained before exports. As noted in the case, some of the goods will be manufactured in China and sourced to Australia through Singapore. In this case, the business must ob tain an Out re-imported goods permit through TradeNet before it exports the goods under the Temporary Export Scheme. By fully exploiting the free trade agreement existing between Singapore and Australia, the business can benefit in the form of reduced import charges which is passed on to the consumers in the form of low product prices (, 2003). Exports from Singapore Non-Dutiable Dutiable Source: Singapore Customs (2012, p.1) Supplier Selection, Evaluation and Procurement The first process in

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Db2 employment recruitment and select Research Paper

Db2 employment recruitment and select - Research Paper Example The other function involves the non essential functions, as the name suggests they are additional duties laid form a major function being presented. They are either caused by some occurrences or used as additional duties to be carried out workers. They done require specialist to perform them so in major organizations they are usually distributed among amongst all employees. According to (Walker, 2003) Essential and non essential functions are executed with respect to the organization of the subject at hand for example the introduction of a new system be it scientific or simple system the need to describe functions of the employs must be kept in mind. In caring out the essential duties the international laws governing the labor sector must be observed. They include the recommend eight hours of working time is observed and that the working conditions are favorable. The issue of overtime pay must be included in performing these duties. Essential duties are major to the organization for instance an account caring out an audit is termed as essential but when he is involved in matters to deal with training of fellow employees then it becomes non

Why cambrige college lladd Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Why cambrige college lladd - Essay Example Flexible timings of Cambridge College would facilitate me to improve my education and learn necessary skills. Working population today faces more challenges and therefore they need to expand their horizon of knowledge through continuous learning for new skills and competencies. The evening classes of Cambridge College are not only convenient for working adults but it also offers excellent academic programs and opportunities of personal development. By enrolling for the part time professional academic program, I would be able to improve my job prospects. I am highly ambitious and my long term goal is to become senior Director of the firm I am working in. The evening academic program would significantly add value to my skills and knowledge. It would thereby equip me with informed choices so that I would be able to make more efficient and effective decisions in my personal and professional arena. I am confident that the part time program from Cambridge College would help me realize my

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Db2 employment recruitment and select Research Paper

Db2 employment recruitment and select - Research Paper Example The other function involves the non essential functions, as the name suggests they are additional duties laid form a major function being presented. They are either caused by some occurrences or used as additional duties to be carried out workers. They done require specialist to perform them so in major organizations they are usually distributed among amongst all employees. According to (Walker, 2003) Essential and non essential functions are executed with respect to the organization of the subject at hand for example the introduction of a new system be it scientific or simple system the need to describe functions of the employs must be kept in mind. In caring out the essential duties the international laws governing the labor sector must be observed. They include the recommend eight hours of working time is observed and that the working conditions are favorable. The issue of overtime pay must be included in performing these duties. Essential duties are major to the organization for instance an account caring out an audit is termed as essential but when he is involved in matters to deal with training of fellow employees then it becomes non

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Mergers Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Mergers - Essay Example Specifically, an analysis of the market would be conducted. This entails understanding if the market is growing, or if the competitors are cannibalizing each others’ members. Additionally, reviewing ease of entry into the market is done. This is achieved through reviewing the growth of new competitors in the market. Assessment would be conducted to understand if the new competitors have taken significant market share or if the market is locked in among the current players. Reputation in the market: Conduct an assessment of the image, brand, and the member service reputation of the merging credit union. Reputation can be effectively assessed by using the Better Business Bureau, industry associations, and social media sites. Viability of membership groups: Viability of membership groups would be investigated. This is through review of the major SEG and garnering the stability of the industry. Review is also conducted on the membership opportunity and geography of the membership. Major contracts: Review all employment agreements, major supplier, equipment leases, and legal agreements. Determine what line of business or products have been outsourced. Due to the size of the merging credit union they may have third parties perform multiple activities including engaging directly with members. Review the contracts to determine termination timelines and that the contracts clearly define expectations and responsibilities of the third party to help ensure the contacts enforceability, limit the credit unions liability, and mitigate disputes about performance. Leased: If the branch is leased, then review the lease and any amendments. If the lease term is under 18 months, analyze the cost of a move. If the term is over 18 months; financial analysis would be done based on location, accessibility, easements, adequate space, and the cost of renovations. Assets: Cash, securities, and loans. Assess asset classes in real

Monday, October 14, 2019

Arthur Millers play Essay Example for Free

Arthur Millers play Essay Arthur Millers play The Crucible is, on the surface, a play about a real life historical event that took place in the small American town of Salem in 1692. A mass hysteria gripped the town because of accusations of witchcraft and compacting with the devil. This led to many innocent people being hanged. However, some people believe that if you look deeper into the play you can see clear parallels with 1692 Salem and 1950s America. After the end of the Second World War most of Europe was devastated and left trying to recover. This left the USA and the USSR as the two dominant superpowers, both of these heavily armed nations were extremely scared of the other attacking them and so came an arms race to try to beat the other side. Diplomatic relations between the two powers broke down and widespread fear of communism took over the USA. So began the Cold War. Senator Joseph McCarthy set up the House Un-American Committee to root out communists and their sympathisers. This included anyone who had remotely left-wing views. Many actors, writers and musicians were brought before the committee including Miller himself. If you remember a crucible is a dish used to heat out the impurities from metals, you can see how it relates to Proctor in court being heated to provide names and confessions. This is much the same as what happened to Miller who was also asked to name names (but refused). To answer the question it has to be remembered that Miller intended that the play be performed on stage and not read like a book. He uses stage directions to convey to the audience some of the feelings characters are experiencing. On page 108 stage directions for Proctor say With great force of will, but not quite looking at her. The shows the audience that Proctor still cannot forgive himself for his affair with Abigail. It also shows the conflict between Proctor and Elizabeth and also Proctor and Abigail. Proctor also has a conflict with Parris, who he correctly believes is an incompetent fool. In addition to this he also has conflict he also a conflict with all the girls because he knows they are faking the whole thing. Miller shows this by having Proctor go to court to try and prove the girls liars. He brings Mary Warren into Court saying, She never saw no spirits. He also has conflicts with judges Haythorne and Danforth. On page 113 he says I speak my own sins, I cannot judge another. (Crying out with hatred) The stage directions for this quote clearly shows this conflict. These conflicts are all of one particular type, conflicts with other people, except for the conflicts with Judges Haythorne and Danforth who could also represent Proctors conflicts with Authority.  Reverend Hale has a conflict with Proctor because he believes that Proctor should sign the confession to live and not die for his pride. At one point he shows his anger at Proctors decision to tear up his confession says Man, you will hang! You cannot!.  A lot of characters especially Proctor have conflicts with authority. Proctor has a huge conflict with the courts and also the church, although the two are very close together. This is where Miller uses him to explore his own conflict with McCarthyism and his own experiences before the House Un-American Committee. On page 114 stage directions for Proctor read Proctor has finished signing when Danforth reaches for the paper. But Proctor snatches it up and now a wild terror is rising in him, and a boundless anger this shows very much how much Proctor hates the courts and could also show us something of Millers feelings towards McCarthyism. This is because both Proctor and Miller know that the courts/government are almost trying to bribe people into giving the names of others even if the others are innocent people that are being named to get them out of trouble or being named for some kind of revenge purpose. To add to his long list of conflicts Proctor also has a conflict within himself about whether or now he should sign the confession and name people to save his life or to protect others and his honour and die. Miller also faced this (although he was only threatened with jail not death) but like Proctor he refused to name people and escaped without severe punishment.  Elizabeth Proctor also has conflicts within herself as to whether or not to help John Proctor in his decision to sign the paper or not. In the end she does not help him and he must do it himself. This may show how alone you could feel when being questioned about your Un-American Activities in 1950s/60s America. In the end of the play Proctor is hung for not confessing or naming names. This ending solves many of the conflicts in the play. It solves all Proctors conflicts with people and authority and also other people conflicts with him. However it could spark of new conflicts within people such as the girls who faked the whole thing and must be wondering whether they should have said something before people were killed or whether to say something now. I think Miller is using his characters to show us different conflicts in society and the problems with people and how they can do things they ordinarily wouldnt to gain an advantage or to escape trouble. He also uses the conflicts to show problems with high authority and how they could collapse if they were revealed to be wrong about serious things like the witch trials. I think Miller is trying to tell us something we should all probably learn from.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Weather Forecasting with Digital Signals

Weather Forecasting with Digital Signals INTRODUCTION: Digital signal processing (DSP) is concerned with the representation of the signals by a sequence of numbers or symbols and the processing of these signals. Digital signal processing and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing. The analog waveform is sliced into equal segments and the waveform amplitude is measured in the middle of each segment. The collection of measurements makes up the digital representation of the waveform. Converting a continuously changing waveform (analog) into a series of discrete levels (digital) Applications of DSP DSP technology is nowadays commonplace in such devices as mobile phones, multimedia computers, video recorders, CD players, hard disc drive controllers and modems, and will soon replace analog circuitry in TV sets and telephones. An important application of DSP is in signal compression and decompression. Signal compression is used in digital cellular phones to allow a greater number of calls to be handled simultaneously within each local cell. DSP signal compression technology allows people not only to talk to one another but also to see one another on their computer screens, using small video cameras mounted on the computer monitors, with only a conventional telephone line linking them together. In audio CD systems, DSP technology is used to perform complex error detection and correction on the raw data as it is read from the CD. some of the mathematical theory underlying DSP techniques, such as Fourier and Hilbert Transforms, digital filter design and signal compression, can be fairly complex, the numerical operations required actually to implement these techniques are very simple, consisting mainly of operations that could be done on a cheap four-function calculator. The architecture of a DSP chip is designed to carry out such operations incredibly fast, processing hundreds of millions of samples every second, to provide real-time performance: that is, the ability to process a signal live as it is sampled and then output the processed signal, for example to a loudspeaker or video display. All of the practical examples of DSP applications mentioned earlier, such as hard disc drives and mobile phones, demand real-time operation. Weather forecasting- is the science of making predictions about general and specific weather phenomenon for a given area based on observations of such weather related factors as atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, precipitation, cloud cover, temperature, humidity, frontal movements, etc. Meteorologists use several tools to help them forecast the weather for an area. These fall under two categories: tools for collecting data and tools for coordinating and interpreting data. Weather forecasting- is the science of making predictions about general and specific weather phenomenon for a given area based on observations of such weather related factors as atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, precipitation, cloud cover, temperature, humidity, frontal movements, etc. Meteorologists use several tools to help them forecast the weather for an area. These fall under two categories: tools for collecting data and tools for coordinating and interpreting data. In a typical weather-forecasting system, recently collected data are fed into a computer model in a process called assimilation. This ensures that the computer model holds the current weather conditions as accurately as possible before using it to predict how the weather may change over the next few days. Weather forecasting is an exact science of data collecting, but interpretation of the data collected can be difficult because of the chaotic nature of the factors that affect the weather. These factors can follow generally recognized trends, but meteorologists understand that many things can affect these trends. With the advent of computer models and satellite imagery, weather forecasting has improved greatly. Weather forecasting- is the science of making predictions about general and specific weather phenomenon for a given area based on observations of such weather related factors as atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, precipitation, cloud cover, temperature, humidity, frontal movements, etc. Meteorologists use several tools to help them forecast the weather for an area. These fall under two categories: tools for collecting data and tools for coordinating and interpreting data. * Tools for collecting data include instruments such as thermometers, barometers, hygrometers, rain gauges, anemometers, wind socks and vanes, Doppler radar and satellite imagery (such as the GOES weather satellite). * Tools for coordinating and interpreting data include weather maps and computer models. In a typical weather-forecasting system, recently collected data are fed into a computer model in a process called assimilation. This ensures that the computer model holds the current weather conditions as accurately as possible before using it to predict how the weather may change over the next few days. Weather forecasting is an exact science of data collecting, but interpretation of the data collected can be difficult because of the chaotic nature of the factors that affect the weather. These factors can follow generally recognized trends, but meteorologists understand that many things can affect these trends. With the advent of computer models and satellite imagery, weather forecasting has improved greatly. Since lives and livelihoods depend on accurate weather forecasting, these improvements have helped not only the understanding of weather, but how it affects living and non living things on Earth. Weather forecasting is the science of making predictions about general and specific weather phenomena for a given area based on observations of such weather related factors as atmospheric pressure, wind speed and direction, precipitation, cloud cover, temperature, humidity, frontal movements, etc. Meteorologists use several tools to help them forecast the weather for an area. These fall under two categories: tools for collecting data and tools for coordinating and interpreting data. Tools for collecting data include instruments such as thermometers, barometers, hygrometers, rain gauges, anemometers, wind socks and vanes, Doppler radar and satellite imagery (such as the GOES weather satellite). Tools for coordinating and interpreting data include weather maps and computer models. In a typical weather-forecasting system, recently collected data are fed into a computer model in a process called assimilation. This ensures that the computer model holds the current weather conditions as accurately as possible before using it to predict how the weather may change over the next few days. Weather forecasting is an exact science of data collecting, but interpretation of the data collected can be difficult because of the chaotic nature of the factors that affect the weather. These factors can follow generally recognized trends, but meteorologists understand that many things can affect these trends. With the advent of computer models and satellite imagery, weather forecasting has improved greatly. Since lives and livelihoods depend on accurate weather forecasting, these improvements have helped not only the understanding of weather, but how it affects living and nonliving things on Earth. Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the state of the atmosphere for a future time and a given location. Human beings have attempted to predict the weather informally for millennia, and formally since at least the nineteenth century. Weather forecasts are made by collecting quantitative data about the current state of the atmosphere and using scientific understanding of atmospheric processes to project how the atmosphere will evolve. Once an all-human endeavor based mainly upon changes in barometric pressure, current weather conditions, and sky condition, forecast models are now used to determine future conditions. Human input is still required to pick the best possible forecast model to base the forecast upon, which involves pattern recognition skills, teleconnections, knowledge of model performance, and knowledge of model biases. The chaotic nature of the atmosphere, the massive computational power required to solve the equations that describe the atmosphere, error involved in measuring the initial conditions, and an incomplete understanding of atmospheric processes mean that forecasts become less accurate as the difference in current time and the time for which the forecast is being made (the range of the forecast) increases. The use of ensembles and model consensus help narrow the error and pick the most likely outcome. There are a variety of end uses to weather forecasts. Weather warnings are important forecasts because they are used to protect life and property. Forecasts based on temperature and precipitation are important to agriculture, and therefore to traders within commodity markets. Temperature forecasts are used by utility companies to estimate demand over coming days. On an everyday basis, people use weather forecasts to determine what to wear on a given day. Since outdoor activities are severely curtailed by heavy rain, snow and the wind chill, forecasts can be used to plan activities around these events, and to plan ahead and survive them. History of weather control If we dispense with legends, at least Native American Indians had methods which they believed to induce rain. The Finnish people, on the other hand, were believed by others to be able to control all weather. Thus Vikings refused to take Finns on their raids by sea. Remnants of this belief lasted well into the modern age, with many ship crews being reluctant to accept Finnish sailors. The early modern era saw people observe that during battles the firing of cannons and other firearms often precipitated precipitation. The first example of weather control which is still considered workable is probably the lightning conductor. For millennia people have tried to forecast the weather. In 650 BC, the Babylonians predicted the weather from cloud patterns as well as astrology. In about 340 BC, Aristotle described weather patterns in Meteorologica. Later, Theophrastus compiled a book on weather forecasting, called the Book of Signs. Chinese weather prediction lore extends at least as far back as 300 BC. In 904 AD, Ibn Wahshiyyas Nabatean Agriculture discussed the weather forecasting of atmospheric changes and signs from the planetary astral alterations; signs of rain based on observation of the lunar phases; and weather forecasts based on the movement of winds. Ancient weather forecasting methods usually relied on observed patterns of events, also termed pattern recognition. For example, it might be observed that if the sunset was particularly red, the following day often brought fair weather. This experience accumulated over the generations to produce weather lore. However, not all of these predictions prove reliable, and many of them have since been found not to stand up to rigorous statistical testing. It was not until the invention of the electric telegraph in 1835 that the modern age of weather forecasting began. Before this time, it had not been possible to transport information about the current state of the weather any faster than a steam train. The telegraph allowed reports of weather conditions from a wide area to be received almost instantaneously by the late 1840s. This allowed forecasts to be made by knowing what the weather conditions were like further upwind. The two men most credited with the birth of forecasting as a scienc e were Francis Beaufort (remembered chiefly for the Beaufort scale) and his protà ©gà © Robert FitzRoy (developer of the Fitzroy barometer). Both were influential men in British naval and governmental circles, and though ridiculed in the press at the time, their work gained scientific credence, was accepted by the Royal Navy, and formed the basis for all of todays weather forecasting knowledge. To convey information accurately, it became necessary to have a standard vocabulary describing clouds; this was achieved by means of a series of classifications and, in the 1890s, by pictorial cloud atlases. Great progress was made in the science of meteorology during the 20th century. The possibility of numerical weather prediction was proposed by Lewis Fry Richardson in 1922, though computers did not exist to complete the vast number of calculations required to produce a forecast before the event had occurred. Practical use of numerical weather prediction began in 1955, spurred by the development of programmable electronic computers. * Modern aspirations There are two factors which make weather control extremely difficult if not fundamentally intractable. The first one is the immense quantity of energy contained in the atmosphere. The second is its turbulence. Effective cloud seeding to produce rain has always been some 50 years away. People do utilize even the most expensive and experimental types of it, but more in hope than confidence. Another even more speculative and expensive technique that has been semiseriously discussed is the dissipation of hurricanes by exploding a nuclear bomb in the eye of the storm. It is questionable that it will ever even be tried, because if it failed, the result would be a hurricane bearing radioactive fallout along with the destructive power of its winds and rain. * Modern day weather forecasting system Components of a modern weather forecasting system include: Data collection Data assimilation Numerical weather prediction Model output post-processing Forecast presentation to end-user * Data collection Observations of atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, precipitation are made near the earths surface by trained observers, automatic weather stations or buoys. The World Meteorological Organization acts to standardize the instrumentation, observing practices and timing of these observations worldwide. Stations either report hourly in METAR reports, or every six hours in SYNOP reports. Diurnal (daily) rhythm of air pressure in northern Germany (black curve is air pressure) Atmospheric pressure is the pressure at any point in the Earths atmosphere. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). An AWS in Antarctica An automatic weather station (AWS) is an automated version of the traditional weather station, either to save human labour or to enable measurements from remote areas. Weather buoys are instruments which collect weather and ocean data within the worlds oceans. WMO flag The World Meteorological Organization (WMO, French: , OMM) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 188 Member States and Territories. METAR (for METeorological Aerodrome Report) is a format for reporting weather information. SYNOP (surface synoptic observations) is a numerical code (called FM-12 by WMO) used for reporting marine weather observations made by manned and automated weather stations. Measurements of temperature, humidity and wind above the surface are found by launching radiosondes (weather balloon). Data are usually obtained from near the surface to the middle of the stratosphere, about 30,000 m (100,000 ft). In recent years, data transmitted from commercial airplanes through the AMDAR system has also been incorporated into upper air observation, primarily in numerical models. radiosonde with measuring instruments A radiosonde (Sonde is German for probe) is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. Aircraft Meteorological Data Relay (AMDAR) is a program initiated by the World Meteorological Organization. Increasingly, data from weather satellites are being used due to their (almost) global coverage. Although their visible light images are very useful for forecasters to see development of clouds, little of this information can be used by numerical weather prediction models. The infra-red (IR) data however can be used as it gives information on the temperature at the surface and cloud tops. Individual clouds can also be tracked from one time to the next to provide information on wind direction and strength at the clouds steering level. Polar orbiting satellites provide soundings of temperature and moisture throughout the depth of the atmosphere. Compared with similar data from radiosondes, the satellite data has the advantage that coverage is global, however the accuracy and resolution is not as good. A weather satellite is a type of artificial satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and/or climate of the Earth. Sounding The historical nautical term for measuring dept h. Meteorological radar provide information on precipitation location and intensity.. Additionally, if a Pulse Doppler weather radar is used then wind speed and direction can be determined.. * Data assimilation Data assimilation (DA) is a method used in the weather forecasting process in which observations of the current (and possibly, past) weather are combined with a previous forecast for that time to produce the meteorological `analysis; the best estimate of the current state of the atmosphere. Weatherman redirects here. Modern weather predictions aid in timely evacuations and potentially save lives and property damage. More generally, Data assimilation is a method to use observations in the forecasting process. In weather forecasting there are 2 main types of data assimilation: 3 dimensional (3DDA) and 4 dimensional (4DDA). In 3DDA only those observations are used available at the time of analyses. In 4DDA the past observations are included (thus, time dimension added). The first data assimilation methods were called the objective analyses (e.g., Cressman algorithm). This was in contrast to the subjective analyses, when (in the past practice) numerical weather predictions (NWP) forecasts were arbitrarily corrected by meteorologists. The objective methods used simple interpolation approaches, and thus were the kind of 3DDA methods. The similar 4DDA methods, called nudging also exist (e.g. in MM5 NWP model). They are based on the simple idea of Newtonian relaxation. The idea is to add in the right part of dynamical equations of the model the term, proportional to the difference of the calculated meteorological variable and the observation value. This term, that has a negative sign keeps the calculated state vector closer to the observations. The first breakdown in the field of data assimilation was introducing by L.Gandin (1963) with the statistical interpolation (or optimal interpolation ) method. It developed the previous ideas of Kolmogorov. That method is the 3DDA method and is the kind of regression analyses, which utilizes the information about the spatial distributions of covariance functions of the errors of the first guess field (previous forecast) and true field. These functions are never known. However, the different approximations were assumed. In fact optimal interpolation algorithm is the reduced version of the Kalman filtering (KF) algorithm, when the covariance matrices are not calculated from the dynamical equations, but are pre-determined in advance. The Kalman filter (named after its inventor, Rudolf Kalman) is an efficient recursive computational solution for tracking a time-dependent state vector with noisy equations of motion in real time by the least-squares method. When this was recognised the attempts to introduce the KF algorithms as a 4DDA tool for NWP models were done. However, this was (and remains) a very difficult task, since the full version of KF algorithm requires solution of the enormous large number of additional equations. In connection with that the special kind of KF algorithms (suboptimal) for NWP models were developed. Another significant advance in the development of the 4DDA methods was utilizing the optimal control theory (variational approach) in the works of Le Dimet and Talagrand, 1986, based on the previous works of G. Marchuk. The significant advantage of the variational approaches is that the meteorological fields satisfy the dynamical equations of the NWP model and at the same time they minimize the functional, characterizing their difference from observations. Thus, the problem of constrained minimization is solved. The 3DDA variational methods also exist (e.g., Sasaki, 1958). Optimal control theory is a mathematical field that is concerned with control policies that can be deduced using optimization algorithms. As it was shown by Lorenc, 1986, the all abovementioned kinds of 4DDA methods are in some limit equivalent. I.e., under some assumptions they minimize the same cost functional. However, these assumptions never fulfill. The rapid development of the various data assimilation methods for NWP is connected to the two main points in the field of numerical weather prediction: 1. Utilizing the observations currently seems to be the most promicing challange to improve the quality of the forecasts at the different scales (from the planetary scale to the local city, or even street scale) 2. The number of different kinds of observations (sodars, radars, sattelite) is rapidly growing. The DA methods are currently used not also in weather forecasting, but in different environmental forecasting problems, e.g. in hydrological forecasting. Basically the same types of DA methods, as those, described above are in use there. Data assimilation is the challange for the every forecasting problem. Numerical weather prediction Numerical weather prediction is the science of predicting the weather using mathematical models of the atmosphere. Manipulating the huge datasets and performing the complex calculations necessary to do this on a resolution fine enough to make the results useful can require some of the most powerful supercomputers in the world. Image File history File links NAM_500_MB.PNGà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚ ½ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Numerical weather prediction Block (meteorology) Image File history File links NAM_500_MB.PNGà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒâ€¦Ã‚ ½ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Numerical weather prediction Block (meteorology) A millibar (mbar, also mb) is 1/1000th of a bar, a unit for measurement of pressure. Geopotential height is a vertical coordinate referenced to Earths mean sea level an adjustment to geomet ric height (elevation above mean sea level) using the variation of gravity with latitude and elevation. Weather is a term that encompasses phenomena in the atmosphere of a planet. A mathematical model is an abstract model that uses mathematical language to describe the behaviour of a system. A supercomputer is a computer that leads the world in terms of processing capacity, particularly speed of calculation, at the time of its introduction. An example of 500 mbar geopotential height prediction from a numerical weather prediction model Model output post processing The raw output is often modified before being presented as the forecast. This can be in the form of statistical techniques to remove known biases in the model, or of adjustment to take into account consensus among other numerical weather forecasts. For other senses of this word, see bias (disambiguation). In the past, the human forecaster used to be responsible for generating the entire weather forecast from the observations. However today, for forecasts beyond 24hrs human input is generally confined to post-processing of model data to add value to the forecast. Humans are required to interpret the model data into weather forecasts that are understandable to the end user. Additionally, humans can use knowledge of local effects which may be too small in size to be resolved by the model to add information to the forecast. However, the increasing accuracy of forecast models continues to decrease the need for post-processing and human input. Examples of weather model data can be found on Vigilant Weathers Model Pulse. Presentation of weather forecasts The final stage in the forecasting process is perhaps the most important. Knowledge of what the end user needs from a weather forecast must be taken into account to present the information in a useful and understandable way. * Public information One of the main end users of a forecast is the general public. Thunderstorms can cause strong winds, dangerous lightning strikes leading to power outages, and widespread hail damage. Heavy snow or rain can bring transportation and commerce to a stand-still, as well as cause flooding in low-lying areas. Excessive heat or cold waves can kill or sicken those without adequate utilities. The National Weather Service provides forecasts and watches/warnings/advisories for all areas of the United States to protect life and property and maintain commercial interests. Traditionally, television and radio weather presenters have been the main method of informing the public, however increasingly the internet is being used due to the vast amount of information that can be found. * Air traffic The aviation industry is especially sensitive to the weather. Fog and/or exceptionally low ceilings can prevent many aircraft landing and taking off. Similarly, turbulence and icing can be hazards whilst in flight. Thunderstorms are a problem for all aircraft, due to severe turbulence and icing, as well as large hail , strong winds, and lightning , all of which can cause fatal damage to an aircraft in flight. On a day to day basis airliners are routed to take advantage of the jet stream tailwind to improve fuel efficiency. Air crews are briefed prior to take off on the conditions to expect en route and at their destination. * Utility companies Electricity companies rely on weather forecasts to anticipate demand which can be strongly affected by the weather. In winter, severe cold weather can cause a surge in demand as people turn up their heating. Similarly, in summer a surge in demand can be linked with the increased use of air conditioning systems in hot weather. * Private sector Increasingly, private companies pay for weather forecasts tailored to their needs so that they can increase their profits. For example, supermarket chains may change the stocks on their shelves in anticipation of different consumer spending habits in different weather conditions. a) =Ensemble forecasting= Although a forecast model will predict realistic looking weather features evolving realistically into the distant future, the errors in a forecast will inevitably grow with time due to the chaotic nature of the atmosphere. The detail that can be given in a forecast therefore decreases with time as these errors increase. There becomes a point when the errors are so large that the forecast is completely wrong and the forecasted atmospheric state has no correlation with the actual state of the atmosphere. However, looking at a single forecast gives no indication of how likely that forecast is to be correct. Ensemble forecasting uses lots of forecasts produced to reflect the uncertainty in the initial state of the atmosphere (due to errors in the observations and insufficient sampling). The uncertainty in the forecast can then be assessed by the range of different forecasts produced. They have been shown to be better at detecting the possibility of extreme events at long range. Ensemble forecasts are increasingly being used for operational weather forecasting (for example at ECMWF , NCEP , and the Canadian forecasting center). b) =Nowcasting= The forecasting of the weather in the 0-6 hour timeframe is often referred to as nowcasting . It is in this range that the human forecaster still has an advantage over computer NWP models. In this time range it is possible to forecast smaller features such as individual shower clouds with reasonable accuracy, however these are often too small to be resolved by a computer model. A human given the latest radar, satellite and observational data will be able to make a better analysis of the small scale features present and so will be able to make a more accurate forecast for the following few hours. Signal Processing Generating imagery for forecasting terror threats Intelligence analysts and military planners need predictions about likely terrorist targets in order to better plan the deployment of security forces and sensing equipment. We have addressed this need using Gaussian-based forecasting and uncertainty modeling. Our approach excels at indicating the highest threats expected for each point along a travel path and for a global war on terrorism mission. It also excels at identifying the greatest-likelihood collection areas that would be used to observe a target. 1 on geospatial analysis and asymmetric-threat forecasting in the urban environment. He showed how to extract distinct signatures from associations made between historical event information and contextual information sources such as geospatial and temporal political databases. We have augmented this to include uncertainty estimates associated with historical events and geospatial information layers.2 Event Forecasting Spatial Preferences The notion of spatial preferences has been used to find potential crime1 and threat3 hot spots. The premise is that a terrorist or criminal is directed toward a certain location by a set of qualities, such as geospatial features, demographic and economic information, and recent political events. Focusing on geospatial information, we assume the intended target is associated with features a small distance from the event location. We assign the highest likelihoods to the distances between each key feature and the event, and taper them away from these distances. This behavior is modeled using a kernel function centered at each of these distances. For a Gaussian kernel applied to a discretized map, the probability density function à Ã‚  for a given grid cell g and uncertainty estimates u is given by Dig is the distance from feature i to the grid cell, Din is the distance from the feature to event location n, c is a constant, ÃŽÂ ¦E and ÃŽÂ ¦F are the position uncertainty for event and features respectively, I is the total number of features, and N is the total number of events. Figure 1(a) shows a sample forecast image based on this approach, denoting threat level with colors ranging from blue for lowest threat, through red for highest threat. For the same set of features and events, Figure 1(b) shows a more manageable forecast-in terms of allocating security resources-determined by aggregating feature layers prior to generating the likelihood values. Modeling Uncertainty One of the most important aspects of forecasting is having an estimate of the confidence in the supporting numerical values. In numerical weather prediction, there is always a value of confidence assigned with each forecast. For example, predicting an 80% chance of rain implies that numerical weather models given input parameter variations, predicted eight o